Volume 5, Issue 3, Summer 2016, Page 172-298


The mediator role of hierarchical distance on social processes-HRM practices: An empirical analysis of Spanish firms

Rafael Triguero-Sánchez; Jesús C. Peña-Vinces; Jorge Guillen

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 172-190
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2016.60337

The literature pays little attention to non-linear models, especially regarding dimensions such as organizational culture. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to test the role of hierarchical distance in the relationship between HRM practices and social processes. With a sample of 102 Spanish firms and using partial least squares structural equation modeling assessed this relationship. Results suggested mediation of hierarchical distance between HRM practices and social processes. Such results recommend that HR managers should consider hierarchical distance more carefully especially when creating HRM practices to improve relationships among employees. Thus, the politics of commitment function better when organizations are more horizontal and when tasks are commonly delegated, managers question employees frequently prior to making decisions, discussions are encouraged, and social relationships – both in and out of work – are valued,  appear to provide the most benefit regarding competitive advantages generated through HRM practices.  

An investigation of the impact of the knowledge sharing and the characteristics of learning organization on employees’ organizational intelligence

Mojtaba Babapour; Bahram Gheibi

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 191-198
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2016.60269

The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the knowledge sharing and the characteristics of learning organization on employees’ organizational intelligence in Red Crescent Society of Ardabil Province. The present study was a descriptive correlational research in terms of method and a survey research in terms of data collection. The population for the study consisted of the entire staff of Crescent Society of Ardabil Province which was equal to 210 individuals. Due to the limited statistical population, instead of sampling, all 210 employees were selected as the sample. Among 210 questionnaires, a total of 190 questionnaires were returned and entered the analysis. In this research, the data gathering tools were the learning organization questionnaire by Mahmoodzadeh (2005), Albrecht’s (2003) organizational intelligence questionnaire, and Pai’s knowledge sharing questionnaire (2006). In order to analyze the collected data, SPSS software was conducted and to analyze the hypotheses, simple and multiple regressions were used. Results indicated that the knowledge sharing and its components had a positive and significant impact on organizational intelligence of the employees of Red Crescent Society of Ardabil province. Moreover, the characteristics of learning organization and its components had a positive and significant impact on organizational intelligence of the employees of Red Crescent Society of Ardabil Province.

Assessing the role of architectural space in enhancing human force productivity

Zeynab Yousefizadeh; Seyed Hadi Ghoddusifar

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 199-207
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2016.60275

In recent years, specializing different trends has faded role of architectural space and architectural design in management and leadership of organizations. For example, today, fewer management specialists think about architectural design issues and fewer architects think deeply of leadership, management, and systematic thought. While it seems that what these two areas have in common is significantly beneficial. In any organization, human resources are main factor, thus, recognition of human and promoting criteria of human resource productivity is essential to achieve success of the organization. Today, working environment in organizations is of important issues addressed continuously in meetings and papers and importance and quality of creating an effective and appropriate environment for human resources is emphasized; in fact, workplace has a direct relation to increase or decrease the organizational performance. There are factors that if they go unnoticed in design of workplace, organizational works will not be done properly and they will face a decrease in returns. This study aims to recognize the relation between the architectural space and promoting the human resource productivity that accordingly, it is required to identify the methods of promoting human resource productivity in organizations and discern the impact of environment on behavior.

An investigation into the impact of ethics on reinforcing organizational citizenship behavior in arts and cultural clubs of the mosques in Esfahan

Razieh Fayyaz; Maryam Azizinia

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 208-217
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2016.60397

Organizational citizenship behavior is sort of ethical behavior, which is considered as an inevitable necessity for effective organizational performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of ethics on reinforcing organizational citizenship behavior. The study is an applied research adopting a survey design. The statistical population included 300 managers of arts and cultural clubs of the mosques in Esfahan in 2014-15. As statistical sample, 150 managers were selected by means of Cochran’s formula. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire (Cronbach’s Alpha= 0.83).  The content validity of questionnaire was confirmed by experts and professors. The results indicated that from the viewpoint of respondents, the impact of organizational ethics on citizenship behavior is above average. Therefore, according to the results of statistical analyses, all the hypotheses of this research are confirmed and paying attention to ethical issues can improve the performance of the organization. Moreover, organizations’ adherence to ethics has a positive impact on different dimensions of organizational citizenship behavior.

Determining the relationship between organizational learning mechanisms and teachers’ knowledge sharing behavior and professional development ability

Seyyed Mohammad Kalan; Reza Zirak; Rasoul Azad; Bahram Golparvar

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 218-230
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2016.60191

This research reports the study that examined the relationship between organizational learning mechanisms and teachers’ knowledge sharing behavior and professional development ability” In this study, two hundred and fifty teachers were selected using Cochran’s formula and simple random sampling. Three kinds of questionnaires were used to collect the data. The results indicated that the condition of organizational learning mechanisms, knowledge sharing behavior and professional development ability in the first three years of high schools in Ardabil County is above average. Also, there is a positive relationship between the dimensions of organizational learning mechanisms and knowledge sharing behavior and a positive and significant relationship between the dimensions of organizational learning mechanisms (except for the dimension of learning utilization in working environment) and teachers’ professional development ability. According to the results of multiple regression analyses, the dimensions of organizational learning mechanisms, determining development, and learning needs and providing them are respectively appropriate predictors for knowledge sharing behavior, determining development, learning needs, and learning environment. Finally, providing development and learning needs, respectively have the most impact on teachers’ professional development ability.

Code words and covert employment discrimination: Legal analysis and consequences for management

Frank J. Cavico; Bahaudin G. Mujtaba; Marissa Samuel

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 231-253
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2016.60365

Each organization is likely to have its own unique organizational culture that can either be helpful or hurtful to its employee recruitment, productivity, and retention. Dysfunctional organizational cultures tend to have an informal means of communication where certain code words are used to covertly discriminate toward minorities and candidates based on their appearance, looks, or other demographics. Based on court cases and lawsuits filed, this article provides a review of certain common code words that can be evidence of discrimination in the workplace. These discriminatory remarks, comments, and/or practices might be linked to a person’s age, disability, gender, religion, skin color, body size, appearance, and other such dimensions of diversity. The authors provide actual legal examples and show how the courts decided each case and why. The authors also supply concise guidelines and suggestions made by diversity experts, judges, and those who work with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) on legally impermissible and permissible words and phrases. The article offers recommendations for managers and human resources professionals to conduct regular diversity audits of their organization’s culture and overall communication to make sure it represents their mission, vision and value and is free from illegal code words as well as pejorative stereotypical remarks. 

Analysis of environmental costs in the context of achieving sustainable advantage and resource based costing model proposal of reporting environmental costs: Balanced scorecard (BSC)

Orhan ELMACI; Isik ALTUNAL; Kadir TUTKAVUL; Göksel KARAS

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 254-269
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2016.60313

Nowadays, the prevention of environmental problems and importance of elimination of this problem are among the issues which should be understood better by all disciplines. The accounting also is not insensitive to this subject-matter. This increased sensitivity for the environment has brought the concept of environmental accounting. Today, the costs of environment protection in micro-level have gained significance and will continue to increase in the future. However, the environment motive has influenced the genetic codes of firms directly or indirectly and the intensity of this effect continues to increase. Hence, in this study, it is aimed to draw the attention to increasing importance of environmental costs. The main theme of this study was primarily providing environmental costs rather than measuring it correctly. This balance is only possible with the source-based measurement model as a scorecard. Therefore, this article discusses the relationship between the so-called sustainability balanced scorecards and eco-efficiency analysis. Eco-efficiency analysis not only provides a data source for sustainability balanced scorecards but also it serves as a link between the balanced scorecard and corporate environmental accounting systems in the perspective of environmental information systems; so that, eco-efficiency as a component of an environmental information system becomes an adapter with two interfaces characterized in this article. The main focus is on the principle of cause and effect, its different forms, and the implications for the design of appropriate information system components.

Employees’ need for independence, organizational commitment, and turnover intentions: The moderating role of justice perceptions about performance appraisals

Burcu Birecikli; Lütfihak Alpkan; Alper Ertürk; Seval Aksoy

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 270-284
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2016.60461

This empirical research attempts to find out whether it is possible to retain employees who possess strong need for independence and to make them committed by using fair performance appraisal systems. One hundred five white-collar employees working in three high-tech companies were participated in this study. Results showed that both perceived procedural justice and perceived distributive justice of the performance appraisals moderated the relationship between need for independence and affective commitment, as well as the relationship between need for independence and turnover intentions. As a result, the high levels of justice perceptions will lessen the strength of negative relationship between need for independence and organizational commitment and the high levels of justice perceptions will lessen the strength of positive relationship between need for independence and turnover intentions. These findings underlined the importance of justice perceptions, since they not only lead to positive attitudes and behaviors, but also mitigate the effects of the individual attitudes such as need for independence.

A research on levels of organizational learning in educational institutions

Recep Kaçmaz; Celaleddin Serinkan

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 285-298
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2016.60253

Nowadays changes and developments are being experienced in the roles of educational institutions. Educational institutions should respond against these changes and developments by adopting the approach of "teaching" as well as the concept of "learning" and by making organizational learning subject an integral part of their corporate culture. The purpose of this study is to compare the levels of organizational learning in public and private educational institutions, if any, to focus on the causes by analyzing differences. Survey sample is consisted of 916 administrators and teachers working in public and private educational institutions in Denizli province, in Turkey. The research sample of 525 persons was formed by stratified sampling technique. Survey methodology was selected as data collection method and 5-point Likert-type statements were used on scales. To make a comparison in public and private educational institutions, the data obtained were subjected to t-test and mean values were calculated for each learning level. As a result, the learning at all levels in both the public and private educational institution has not proved at "high level".  However, in the study it has been found that learning at all levels in private educational institutions was relatively higher than the public institutions.