About Journal

International Journal of Organizational Leadership is devoted to theoretical and empirical research concerning organizational behaviour, organizational psychology, and managers' leadership tactics and consequences.  Topics covered by the journal include perception, cognition, judgment, attitudes, emotion, well-being, motivation, choice, and performance. Its specific purposes are to foster an improved understanding of how people in an organization are led and how business conduct can affect leadership. This journal brings together a focus on leadership for scholars,...
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Investigating the Effect of Trust, Motivation, and Reward on the Desire to Share Knowledge through Social Networks by Shiraz University of Medical Sciences Staff

Haleh Amiri; Forough Rahimi; Ali Biranvand

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue 4, Pages 384-406
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60341

This study investigated the effect of trust, motivation, and reward on the willingness to share knowledge on social networks by the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS) staff. The instrument of the present study was a researcher-made questionnaire in which formal-content validity was confirmed, and its reliability, according to Cranach's alpha coefficient, was equal to .90. The study's statistical population was 27506, including employees and faculty members, according to the Krejcie and Morgan table, the sample size was 379. The results showed that the importance of knowledge sharing among employees and commitment to the university were two effective components of intrinsic motivation. Support of university administrators for knowledge sharing and improving the status of social pages (38.8%) through knowledge sharing were two effective components of external motivation for employee knowledge sharing in social networks. "Fear of employees being replaced" and "fear of losing a job" were two negative and very weak components of the trust variable on knowledge sharing. "Financial incentives" and "job promotion" were among the influential components of the reward variable, which "greatly" affected the sharing of knowledge in social networks. Paying more attention to evaluating the performance of employees and financial rewards by managers can be effective in sharing knowledge and motivation.

A Study on Digital Leadership Scale Adaptation

Onur Oktaysoy; Ethem Topcuoglu; Erdogan Kaygin

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue 4, Pages 407-425
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60342

In recent years, the speed of digitalisation in nearly all fields has led organizations to actively use digital tools, practice working methods that are compatible with daily requirements, and adjust themselves to the process compositionally. The concept of digital leadership can be defined as the result of this necessity. Digital leaders focus on basic dynamics of the present world, can achieve digital transformation, and equate learning culture and the structure of an organization with digital standards. In this respect, to measure digital leadership understanding in Turkey, the present study adapted the scale, developed by Zeike et al. (2019) to Turkish and analyzed its reliability and validity.  In the study, the first test was conducted with 135 teachers working in Kars, while the second test was conducted with 334 academicians. The adaptation of the scale into Turkish was achieved in the research by making the analyses of normality, correlation, and exploratory factor analysis through the SPSS program and by making confirmatory factor analyses through the AMOS program. The reliability and validity of the scale obtained were achieved by gathering it under a single dimension.

Managing Workforce Diversity and Inclusion: A Critical Review and Future Directions

Christina Morfaki; Alexandra Morfaki

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue 4, Pages 426-443
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60343

Fundamental worldwide economic, socio-demographic, and regulatory shifts are largely responsible for the spike in interest in the topic of Diversity and Inclusion (D&I) in the workplace. Existing research indicates that the focus on workforce diversity and inclusion has attained worldwide currency among HR managers and organizational leaders. However, its enactment remains challenging, partly as its conceptual operationalization is plagued by national, cultural, institutional, and interpersonal barriers. Moreover, there appears to be a gap between the rhetoric of D&I and the idiosyncrasies of its implementation. This gap should be bridged to foster D&I and embed it in the organizational system. To achieve this, we argue that organizations are expected to foster the development of diverse communities of practice; these communities could reshape corporate policies and practices, promote meaningful interactions, serve to develop a shared identity that will challenge entrenched beliefs, and create new artifacts and working cultures. The latter could lead to a restructure of current organizational structures and a reformation of tokenistic joint missions and values. This critical review will assess and highlight recent advancements in the D&I management literature while presenting a broader perspective on the practices at the heart of the field. The conclusion of the study considers potential future avenues for D&I management research and practice.

Factors Affecting the Success of Women Entrepreneurs in Egypt

Miriam Abdelwahid; Hebatalla Kaoud

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue 4, Pages 444-461
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60344

Women's entrepreneurship is still a topic of interest on a global scale. According to studies by many scholars, the rate of female entrepreneurship activities and initiatives is considerably lower than those of men, especially in countries experiencing high gender inequality. The predominance of cultural practices exacerbating favoritism towards men is a major contributor to gender inequality in developing countries. Women become entrepreneurs for two reasons: out of choice or need. Despite the fact that women's participation in the workforce today reflects clear improvement, some studies found that women still have difficulty advancing their careers and, in particular, finding role models for effective managerial leadership. The purpose of this study is to explore factors affecting Egyptian women entrepreneurs’ success. This work is exploratory, as it follows a qualitative approach. The authors conducted eleven in-depth interviews with Egyptian women entrepreneurs from different sectors. The suggested conceptual framework presents several factors that affect the success of women entrepreneurs in Egypt, with different levels: personal factors (entrepreneurial mindset: opportunity recognition and attributes of leadership: motivation and passion, team builder), social support factors (friends & family support and family background and attitudinal drivers) and environmental factors (the use of social media and technology, the integration of sustainable environmental aspects into business strategy and the Egyptian entrepreneurial ecosystem). This study serves as a foundation for further research, analysis, and discussion of the interwind subjects of women, entrepreneurship, and leadership.

Workplace Arrogance, Need for Power, and Counterproductive Work Behaviors in Corporate Managers: The Mediating Role of Humility

Muhammad Zohaib Khan; Iffat Batool

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue 4, Pages 462-482
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60345

The study investigated the relationship between workplace arrogance, the need for power, and Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB) in corporate managers. The study was carried out by following the correlational research design. The sample of N = 260 corporate managers (males = 181, females = 79), with an age range from 30 years to 55 years (M = 41.03, SD = 7.06), was recruited through the purposive sampling strategy from the different cities of Pakistan. In the first step, the authors established a factor structure of the workplace arrogance scale and retained 22 items with well-fitted indices of the one-factor solution model. The results of correlation analysis exhibited significant (p < .05) positive relationships between workplace arrogance, the personalized need for power (P nPower). The CWB was negatively associated with the socialized need for power (S nPower), humility, and agreeableness in corporate managers. The independent sample t-test indicated that male and female corporate managers had similar scores in terms of all study variables (p > .05). In addition, results of multiple linear regression analysis revealed that workplace arrogance and personalized need for power with 25% of the variance were found to be significant (p < .01) predictors of the CWB. Moreover, the path analysis through Structure Equational Modeling (SEM) also suggested that personalized need for power, workplace arrogance, and humility were significant predictors of CWB. Lastly, SEM demonstrated that humility significantly mediated the relationship between workplace arrogance, the need for power, and CWB in corporate managers. Moreover, two demographic variables (i.e., work experience and the corporate sectors) also impact their CWB and the overall model fit indices. The study provides researchers with a validated workplace arrogance scale on the corporate sample. It helps the researchers to expand their understanding of the significance of these constructs in the field of industrial-organizational psychology. In addition, the study seeks to benefit many employees and employers to comprehend the nature and the association of CWB with other undesirable variables in the workplace (i.e., workplace arrogance and personalized need for power).

Exploring the Impact of Workplace Incivility on Employee Counterproductive Work Behavior through the Mediating Role of Turnover Intention: Evidence from The Gambia and Ghana

Samba Sowe; Mahmut Arslan

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, In Press
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2023.60346

Workplace Incivility (WPI) has recently become a dominant area of research as a predictor of employee behavior at work. WPI is a menace in the workplace that creates dissatisfied employees who spend most of their time on non-productive tasks. Based on a sample of 504 employees of public and private sector institutions in The Gambia and Ghana, this article examines the impact of workplace incivility on employee counterproductive work behavior through the mediating role of Turnover Intention (TI). Using structural equation modeling, the results indicate a strong relationship between workplace incivility and Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB) as well as a partial mediating role of TI in the relationship between WPI and CWB. Furthermore, the independent sample t-test and multigroup analysis show a higher level of WPI, TI, and CWB in Ghana compared to The Gambia. These findings contribute to the under-researched area of WPI on the African continent. This study also adds value to the existing, but sparse, literature on workplace incivility and may also be used as a guide for public and private institutions in their pursuit of avoiding workplace incivility as well as knowing its effects on institutional productivity. Finally, this study is the first of its kind to look at the existence of WPI in both public and private institutions from The Gambia and Ghana making country comparisons as well as looking at the impact of WPI on the performance of employees hence its relevance to the literature.

Examination of the Effects of Emotional Intelligence and Authentic Leadership on the Employees in the Organizations

Zafer Adigüzel; Eda Kuloglu

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2019, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 13-30
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2019.60412

In the highly competitive environment of the business world, organizations implement human resource policies and practices to increase the motivation and performance of employees. Efforts to keep employee turnover at minimum levels are directly proportional to employee satisfaction and their willingness to stay in the organization. Employees’ dissatisfaction, leaders’ attitudes and behaviours, human resources policies determine the life of the organizations. The increase in the employment turnover rate can decrease the performance of the organization, bring additional costs and cause employee trainings to be ineffective. In particular, the qualified employees can easily leave the organization if they do not like the management approach leads to the formation of different management understandings and perspectives. The leadership style of the managers and the human resources policies can shape the future of the organizations.  Therefore, it is important to conduct studies in this field to help the senior managers to make decisions and demonstrate their leadership roles. The sample of this study consists of 498 white-collar employees working in the private and public sector. The findings were subjected to factor and reliability analyses by using IBM SPSS 23 program. The hypotheses were tested by regression analysis and the results were evaluated and presented accordingly.

An investigation into the relationship between the organizational intelligence and the performance of Melli and Mehr Eghtesad banks managers in Ardabil

Fatemeh Bagheri Toolarood; Shahram Mirzaei Daryani

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2015, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 374-391
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60345

The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the organizational intelligence and the performance of Melli and Mehr Eghtesad banks managers in Ardabil. In the present study cross-correlation method was used. The population consisted of all managers and assistants of Melli and Mehr Eghtesad banks in Ardabil which were about 132 people. The main tools of data collection were a standardized questionnaire that assigned for organization intelligence and a researcher-made questionnaire measured the relationship between two variables. To test the hypothesis, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Spearman’s Correlation coefficient, and Mann-Whitney U Test Statistics were used. The findings revealed that there was a significant relationship between the organizational intelligence variables and the performance of banks managers and there was no significant difference between the organizational intelligence of Melli and Mehr Eghtesad banks managers.

The relationship between glass ceiling and power distance as a cultural variable by a new method

Naide Jahangirov; Guler Saglam Ari; Seymur Jahangirov; Nuray Guneri Tosunoglu

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2015, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 465-483
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60300

Glass ceiling symbolizes a variety of barriers and obstacles that arise from gender inequality at business life. With this mind, culture influences gender dynamics. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between the glass ceiling and the power distance as a cultural variable within organizations. Gender variable is taken as a moderator variable in relationship between the concepts. In addition to conventional correlation analysis, we employed a new method to investigate this relationship in detail. The survey data were obtained from 109 people working at a research center which operated as a part of the non-profit private university in Ankara, Turkey. The relationship between the variables was revealed by a new method which was developed as an addition to the correlation in survey.  The analysis revealed that the female staff perceived the glass ceiling and the power distance more intensely than the male staff. In addition, the medium level relation was determined between the power distance and the glass ceiling perception among female staff.

The Effect of strategic leadership and empowerment on job satisfaction of the employees of Guilan University

Mostafa Ebrahimpour Azbari; Mohsen Akbari; Milad Hooshmand Chaijani

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2015, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 453-464
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60230

The methods for the management and leadership of educational and research organizations has always been a question of some researchers. With the emergence of the strategic management in educational organizations, different views were raised about the management of these institutions whether it is possible to apply issues related to the business and educational administration field. They both agree on the difference between educational environment and business environment. This difference leads to different research areas which one of them is the managers’ educational leadership style. Regarding to the educational research centers’ management, strategic leadership is one of leadership styles. This paper examined the effect of this leadership style on empowerment and job satisfaction of employees of Guilan University. The statistical population of the study consisted of 235 employees of Guilan University. Smart PLS software and Structural Equation Modeling were used for data analysis. The results showed that the style of strategic leadership and employee empowerment had a significant positive effect on job satisfaction.

How Cultural Differences Influence Conflict Within an Organization: A Case Study of Near East University

Ayşe Gözde Koyuncu; Rufaro Denise Chipindu

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2019, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 112-128
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60478

The culture that people come from has played an important part in shaping any society. Culture is of vital importance since it assists in the way people live and articulating the manner in which information among people is administered. Miscommunication often arises due to the differences in cultures that exist that leads to people misunderstanding of other cultural contexts. Individuals from certain cultures may deal with conflict easily while others tend to find it difficult in dealing with it amenably. This leads to the system of sweeping it under the carpet (De Drue, Blom, & Hagendoom, 2007). Conflict is triggered when there are cultural differences between individuals within an organization or through general interaction with one another. This often leads to cross-cultural conflict which generally occurs in the context that individuals are not willing to understand each other’s diversity in cultures. This study examines cultural differences that influence conflict within an organization. Quota Sampling was used as sampling technique. Data was grouped according to ethnicities. The study is qualitative in nature and made use of semi-structured interviews which were carried out with fifty participants from three ethnic groups. Data was analyzed using Qualitative Content analysis. Findings suggested ways that management could reduce conflict by creating an environment where all cultures interact with one another freely.

THE IMPORTANCE OF ADVERTISING SLOGANS AND THEIR PROPER DESIGNING IN BRAND EQUITY

Somayeh Abdi; Abdollah Irandoust

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 62-69
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2013.60321

The term slogan derives from Slough-ghairm, pronounced as Slogorm from Scottish Gaelic which means battle cry. Slogan is usually an unforgettable phrase that is frequently used to express an idea or purpose. Slogans have been employed in religious and political areas since long time ago, but today they are mostly used in business and trading.
They vary from other ordinary text and images, and often because of their simple structure cannot convey a lot of concepts and details. Hereupon, slogans instead of drawing specific audience, address general audience to convey their particular meanings. Brand owners pay lots of money to advertising agencies to come up with snappy advertising slogans. Advertising slogans often claim to have knowledge of something and attempt to show it.
Slogans usually serve a substantial role in calling audience’s attention to one or more aspects of a product or service. Normally slogans claim that the advertised product or service is of the highest quality, or is the most delicious, the most inexpensive, or nutritious… one. The slogans should point out, at least, the most important advantage of a product, or respond to the audience’s needs, or offer more benefits for their future/probable customers.

Leadership 4.0: Digital Leaders in the Age of Industry 4.0

Birgit Oberer; Alptekin Erkollar

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2018, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 404-412
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60332

Industry 4.0 stands for ‘fourth industrial revolution and is a term referring to rapid transformations in the design, production, implementation, operation, and service of manufacturing systems, products, and components. To get the most out of Industry 4.0 technologies, organizations will have to heavily invest in building capabilities in the following dimensions: data and connectivity, analytics and intelligence, conversion to the physical world, and human-machine interaction. In this study, the human dimension of industry 4.0 has priority, by analyzing behavioral leadership theories that focus on the study of the specific behaviors of a leader (the leader behavior is the predictor of his leadership influences and is the best determinant of his leadership success). A two dimensional 4.0 leadership style matrix was developed (x-axis: innovation/technology concern; y-axis: people concern). The results of this study revealed that the developed industry 4.0 leadership style might have the dimensions of first-year students, social, technological or digital, where the 4.0 digital leader forms the highest reachable level in the 4.0 leadership matrix.

Leadership Competency Model-Drenica: Generalizability of Leadership Competencies

Fadil Çitaku; Hetem Ramadani

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2020, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 156-162
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60502

This paper aims to summarize the generalizability of leadership competencies published in field of leadership. This present study used the Leadership Competencies Model of Çitaku et al. (2012), which has investigated six most developed western countries (Austria (A), Germany (D), Switzerland (CH), United States of America (USA), Canada (CA) and United Kingdom (UK)) to find out leadership competencies for efficient leaders. We randomly selected 25 leadership competencies using the Research Randomizer tool and systematically researched on Google Scholar, how many times occur leadership competencies, published between the 2010 and 2020. The analysis of the related literature was conducted by employing a bibliometric analysis of the research on the Google Scholar database between 2010 and 2020. The results of present study showed that there is an outstanding interest in our randomly chosen leadership competences and that these 25 competencies can be applied in any leadership domain. The study brought out 25 important leadership competencies incorporated in seven important domains, resulting with leadership competencies model named DRENICA, which is scientifically robust and can be used in leadership training courses and programs, in all leadership domains. The study concluded that 25 randomly chosen leadership competencies are robust, generalized and can be used in any leadership domain. Future research should be designed to replicate, extend and confirm the present findings. Meanwhile, we have provided a “Leadership Competency Model-Drenica” that can be employed to teach and further investigate leadership competences.

Examining the Role of Motivation and Reward in Employees’ Job Performance through Mediating Effect of Job Satisfaction: An Empirical Evidence

Kalpina Kumari; Salima Barkat Ali; Noor un Nisa Khan; Jawad Abbas

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 401-420
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60606

The current research uses the principles of reinforcement theory of motivation and self-determination theory and investigates how motivation and rewards impact on job performance of employees. Motivation and rewards are examined from intrinsic and extrinsic perspectives, while job performance is measured from the task and contextual performance aspects. The mediating effect of job satisfaction has also been investigated between motivation, rewards, and job performance. Using five points Likert scale, the researchers collected data from the managerial and non-managerial staff working in manufacturing and services firms. Non- probability convenience sampling technique was followed to collect 422 empirical responses. The collected data were analyzed using the structural equation modeling technique. The results indicated that reward and motivation affect employee job performance positively significantly. However, the dimensional analysis indicated an insignificant impact of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on contextual performance. Besides, the findings substantiate that the relationship between rewards, motivation, and employees’ job performance depends on job satisfaction. The current research provides valuable insights to senior management of manufacturing and services firms on how they can enhance their employees' job satisfaction and performance by following different motivational and reward approaches in different size firms.

Performance appraisal bias and errors: The influences and consequences

Mahmoud Javidmehr; Mehrdad Ebrahimpour

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2015, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 286-302
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60464

Individual performance evaluation (PE) provides a link between individual performance and organizational performance. PE is of considerable importance in human resource management (HRM). Lack of evaluation in various organizational dimensions, such as evaluation of resources and facilities, employees, and organizational goals and strategies is considered a serious disadvantage of organizations. Moreover, lack of evaluation in a system is regarded as lack of communication with internal and external environments which leads to organizational senility and, ultimately, death. In this paper a meta-analysis is used to review literature from various sources available on performance appraisal and influences of bias and errors in evaluation in Sabzevar. The results showed that PE system can result in improvement of the performance of both employees and organizations. Decrease in errors and bias can bring about employee performance improvement as well as an increase in satisfaction with and efficiency
of evaluation system.

The impact of organizational culture on organizational performance: The mediating role of employee’s organizational commitment

Amin Nikpour

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2017, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 65-72
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2017.60432

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mediating role of employee’s organizational commitment on the relationship between organizational culture and organizational performance. This study was descriptive and correlational research that was conducted through the survey method. The study population consisted of all employees in education office of Kerman province and 190 persons were selected as volume of sample by using Cochran’s formula. The data gathering tools were organizational culture, organizational commitment, and organizational performance questionnaires. Descriptive and inferential statistics (structural equation modeling through path analysis) were used to analyze the data. The data was analyzed using SPSS and AMOS softwares. The findings of the research indicated that suggested model had appropriate fit and organizational culture beyond its direct impact exerted indirect impact on organizational performance through the mediation of employee’s organizational commitment that the extent of indirect impact was significantly higher than direct impact. 

Effect of Family Influence, Personal Interest and Economic Considerations on Career Choice amongst Undergraduate Students in Higher Educational Institutions of Vehari, Pakistan

Asad Afzal Humayon; Shoaib Raza; Rao Aamir Khan; Noor ul ain Ansari

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2018, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 129-142
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60333

This study examined the effect of family influence, personal interest, and economic considerations in career choice amongst undergraduate students. The present study used quantitative research design. Target population was undergraduate students of higher educational institutions in Vehari, Pakistan. Cross-sectional data was used in this study. For data collection simple random sampling technique was used. The data was collected through structured questionnaire. The descriptive, demographic, reliability, correlation, and multiple regression analyses were applied to find answer to research questions. The results of regression analysis showed that the family influence, personal interest and economic considerations exercised big influence on the career choice of students. The Limitations of the study, suggestion for the future study, theoretical and practical implications were also discussed in this study.

Leadership 4.0: Digital Leaders in the Age of Industry 4.0

Birgit Oberer; Alptekin Erkollar

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2018, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 404-412
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60332

Industry 4.0 stands for ‘fourth industrial revolution and is a term referring to rapid transformations in the design, production, implementation, operation, and service of manufacturing systems, products, and components. To get the most out of Industry 4.0 technologies, organizations will have to heavily invest in building capabilities in the following dimensions: data and connectivity, analytics and intelligence, conversion to the physical world, and human-machine interaction. In this study, the human dimension of industry 4.0 has priority, by analyzing behavioral leadership theories that focus on the study of the specific behaviors of a leader (the leader behavior is the predictor of his leadership influences and is the best determinant of his leadership success). A two dimensional 4.0 leadership style matrix was developed (x-axis: innovation/technology concern; y-axis: people concern). The results of this study revealed that the developed industry 4.0 leadership style might have the dimensions of first-year students, social, technological or digital, where the 4.0 digital leader forms the highest reachable level in the 4.0 leadership matrix.

THE IMPORTANCE OF ADVERTISING SLOGANS AND THEIR PROPER DESIGNING IN BRAND EQUITY

Somayeh Abdi; Abdollah Irandoust

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 62-69
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2013.60321

The term slogan derives from Slough-ghairm, pronounced as Slogorm from Scottish Gaelic which means battle cry. Slogan is usually an unforgettable phrase that is frequently used to express an idea or purpose. Slogans have been employed in religious and political areas since long time ago, but today they are mostly used in business and trading.
They vary from other ordinary text and images, and often because of their simple structure cannot convey a lot of concepts and details. Hereupon, slogans instead of drawing specific audience, address general audience to convey their particular meanings. Brand owners pay lots of money to advertising agencies to come up with snappy advertising slogans. Advertising slogans often claim to have knowledge of something and attempt to show it.
Slogans usually serve a substantial role in calling audience’s attention to one or more aspects of a product or service. Normally slogans claim that the advertised product or service is of the highest quality, or is the most delicious, the most inexpensive, or nutritious… one. The slogans should point out, at least, the most important advantage of a product, or respond to the audience’s needs, or offer more benefits for their future/probable customers.

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