About Journal

International Journal of Organizational Leadership is devoted to theoretical and empirical research concerning organizational behavior, organizational psychology, and managers leadership tactics and consequences.Topics covered by the journal include perception, cognition, judgment, attitudes, emotion, well-being, motivation, choice, and performance. Its specific purposes are to foster an improved understanding of how people in an organization be leaded and how leadership can be affected by organizations business conducting. This journal brings together a focus...
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The Role of Organizational Leadership in Customer Loyalty through Managing Conflict between Employees and Customers

Samad Aali; Abdulhamid Ibrahimi; Vahid Reza Mirabi; Shahram Zare

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1-16
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60479

The trends in the business world such as the transition to a service-based economy and the development of ICTs have significantly increased the importance of relationship-based loyalty for firms. In line with these changes, a long-term relationship with the customer has become a vital strategy in banking industry. The purpose of this paper is to show the role of organizational leadership in customer loyalty by examining the association between managing conflict, relationship quality and customer loyalty in banking services. In this respect, Agriculture bank of Iran was selected as the target population of the suggested theoretical model of this study and 417 customers of the bank have participated as the statistical samples to achieve the goals of this paper. Samples were selected using simple random sampling and research hypotheses were tested using structural modeling technique and AMOS software. The results showed that the managing conflict has an indirect and positive effect on customer loyalty through relationship quality. Furthermore, the managing conflict had a direct and positive effect on Trust, commitment, and customer satisfaction. In addition, an increase in trust, commitment and customer satisfaction with the bank led to increases in customer loyalty. Findings revealed that the organizational leadership by managing conflict between employees and customers can improve the quality of the customer-company relationship and lead to customer loyalty.

Authentic Leadership and Work Engagement: The Mediatory Role of Employees’ Trust and Occupational Self-efficacy

Syeda Amna Khalil; Danish Ahmed Siddiqui

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 17-42
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60481

This study examines the effect of authentic leadership on employee trust, occupational self-efficacy and work engagement. it also explores the mediating role of employees’ trust and occupational self-efficacy on the relationship between authentic leadership and work engagement. The sample size of this study was 200 employees from different organizations of Pakistan and the quantitative method was used which includes questionnaires with close ended questions. Smart PLS software was used to measure the relationship among variables and different techniques for the analysis were adopted such as SEM Path Analysis and Confirmatory factor analysis. The results indicated a strong relationship among variables and supported that there is a direct and positive relationship between authentic leadership and work engagement and employee trust and occupational self-efficacy act as mediating tool to mediate and strengthen the relationship between authentic leadership and work engagement. This research found a strong and positive relationship among the variables and highlights the vital role that authentic leaders play in motivating employees to bring positive change in employee’s attitude and behavior. The conclusions drawn will help to develop strategies so that the leaders may develop positive traits and workers may perform effectively and efficiently to enhance the productivity of an organization.

Analysis of Product Innovation Performances in Terms of Competitive Strategies of Companies in Production Sector Under the Influence of Technology Orientation

Mehmet Celikyay; Zafer Adiguzel

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 43-59
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60480

Innovation is considered to be one of the most important research areas in the field of science and technology policies in recent years and it is seen as the main driving force of economic growth and welfare increase. In today's competitive global economy, a firm's product innovation capability determines its competitiveness and effectiveness in national or international production and trade networks. Companies that follow a cost leadership strategy can mainly compete at a lower price, which they can do by reducing their costs through efficient resource/production/distribution and scale economies The sustainability of the companies in this competitive environment with sustainable profitability depends on the determination of the competitive strategies to be put into practice and the strategy they implement in the most rational way. In this study, 383 white collar (engineer) employees were surveyed. The factor analysis (explanatory and confirmatory) and reliability analysis of the scales was conducted using SPSS 25 and AMOS Program. The correlation and regression analysis, and sobel and Hayes process tests were performed to examine the effect of mediator variable. The results showed that there is a statistically positive and meaningful relationship between technology orientation and product innovation. In addition, it was found that the cost leadership and differentiation strategies have a mediation effect in this relationship.

The Influence of Corporate Reputation on Affective Organizational Commitment: The Role of Value Congruence as Mediator

Vildan Esenyel

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 60-70
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60482

This study focuses on the relationship between perceived corporate reputation and employees' affective organizational commitment with the mediating role of value congruence between the employee and the organization. A quantitative questionnaire-based survey is used to test the research model with a descriptive approach. The data were collected from employees across multiple private small and medium-sized enterprises and sectors operating in North Cyprus. In order to test the conceptual framework, partial least square (PLS) was used. Some empirical indicators are conducted by using PLS-SEM to examine the reliability and validity of the study. The results revealed that value congruence partially mediates the relationship between perceived corporate reputation and affective organizational commitment. Furthermore, the results showed that perceived positive corporate reputation has a positive impact on affective organizational commitment. This study fills the gap by analyzing the impact of corporate reputation on affective commitment from the employees' perspective. The results led to theoretical and managerial implications related to strategic management.

The Effect of strategic leadership and empowerment on job satisfaction of the employees of Guilan University

Mostafa Ebrahimpour Azbari; Mohsen Akbari; Milad Hooshmand Chaijani

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 453-464
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60230

The methods for the management and leadership of educational and research organizations has always been a question of some researchers. With the emergence of the strategic management in educational organizations, different views were raised about the management of these institutions whether it is possible to apply issues related to the business and educational administration field. They both agree on the difference between educational environment and business environment. This difference leads to different research areas which one of them is the managers’ educational leadership style. Regarding to the educational research centers’ management, strategic leadership is one of leadership styles. This paper examined the effect of this leadership style on empowerment and job satisfaction of employees of Guilan University. The statistical population of the study consisted of 235 employees of Guilan University. Smart PLS software and Structural Equation Modeling were used for data analysis. The results showed that the style of strategic leadership and employee empowerment had a significant positive effect on job satisfaction.

The relationship between glass ceiling and power distance as a cultural variable by a new method

Naide Jahangirov; Guler Saglam Ari; Seymur Jahangirov; Nuray Guneri Tosunoglu

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 465-483
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60300

Glass ceiling symbolizes a variety of barriers and obstacles that arise from gender inequality at business life. With this mind, culture influences gender dynamics. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between the glass ceiling and the power distance as a cultural variable within organizations. Gender variable is taken as a moderator variable in relationship between the concepts. In addition to conventional correlation analysis, we employed a new method to investigate this relationship in detail. The survey data were obtained from 109 people working at a research center which operated as a part of the non-profit private university in Ankara, Turkey. The relationship between the variables was revealed by a new method which was developed as an addition to the correlation in survey.  The analysis revealed that the female staff perceived the glass ceiling and the power distance more intensely than the male staff. In addition, the medium level relation was determined between the power distance and the glass ceiling perception among female staff.

An investigation into the relationship between the organizational intelligence and the performance of Melli and Mehr Eghtesad banks managers in Ardabil

Fatemeh Bagheri Toolarood; Shahram Mirzaei Daryani

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 374-391
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60345

The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the organizational intelligence and the performance of Melli and Mehr Eghtesad banks managers in Ardabil. In the present study cross-correlation method was used. The population consisted of all managers and assistants of Melli and Mehr Eghtesad banks in Ardabil which were about 132 people. The main tools of data collection were a standardized questionnaire that assigned for organization intelligence and a researcher-made questionnaire measured the relationship between two variables. To test the hypothesis, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Spearman’s Correlation coefficient, and Mann-Whitney U Test Statistics were used. The findings revealed that there was a significant relationship between the organizational intelligence variables and the performance of banks managers and there was no significant difference between the organizational intelligence of Melli and Mehr Eghtesad banks managers.

Examination of the Effects of Emotional Intelligence and Authentic Leadership on the Employees in the Organizations

Zafer Adigüzel; Eda Kuloglu

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 13-30
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2019.60412

In the highly competitive environment of the business world, organizations implement human resource policies and practices to increase the motivation and performance of employees. Efforts to keep employee turnover at minimum levels are directly proportional to employee satisfaction and their willingness to stay in the organization. Employees’ dissatisfaction, leaders’ attitudes and behaviours, human resources policies determine the life of the organizations. The increase in the employment turnover rate can decrease the performance of the organization, bring additional costs and cause employee trainings to be ineffective. In particular, the qualified employees can easily leave the organization if they do not like the management approach leads to the formation of different management understandings and perspectives. The leadership style of the managers and the human resources policies can shape the future of the organizations.  Therefore, it is important to conduct studies in this field to help the senior managers to make decisions and demonstrate their leadership roles. The sample of this study consists of 498 white-collar employees working in the private and public sector. The findings were subjected to factor and reliability analyses by using IBM SPSS 23 program. The hypotheses were tested by regression analysis and the results were evaluated and presented accordingly.

Leadership 4.0: Digital Leaders in the Age of Industry 4.0

Birgit Oberer; Alptekin Erkollar

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 404-412
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60332

Industry 4.0 stands for ‘fourth industrial revolution and is a term referring to rapid transformations in the design, production, implementation, operation, and service of manufacturing systems, products, and components. To get the most out of Industry 4.0 technologies, organizations will have to heavily invest in building capabilities in the following dimensions: data and connectivity, analytics and intelligence, conversion to the physical world, and human-machine interaction. In this study, the human dimension of industry 4.0 has priority, by analyzing behavioral leadership theories that focus on the study of the specific behaviors of a leader (the leader behavior is the predictor of his leadership influences and is the best determinant of his leadership success). A two dimensional 4.0 leadership style matrix was developed (x-axis: innovation/technology concern; y-axis: people concern). The results of this study revealed that the developed industry 4.0 leadership style might have the dimensions of first-year students, social, technological or digital, where the 4.0 digital leader forms the highest reachable level in the 4.0 leadership matrix.

THE IMPORTANCE OF ADVERTISING SLOGANS AND THEIR PROPER DESIGNING IN BRAND EQUITY

Somayeh Abdi; Abdollah Irandoust

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 62-69
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2013.60321

The term slogan derives from Slough-ghairm, pronounced as Slogorm from Scottish Gaelic which means battle cry. Slogan is usually an unforgettable phrase that is frequently used to express an idea or purpose. Slogans have been employed in religious and political areas since long time ago, but today they are mostly used in business and trading.
They vary from other ordinary text and images, and often because of their simple structure cannot convey a lot of concepts and details. Hereupon, slogans instead of drawing specific audience, address general audience to convey their particular meanings. Brand owners pay lots of money to advertising agencies to come up with snappy advertising slogans. Advertising slogans often claim to have knowledge of something and attempt to show it.
Slogans usually serve a substantial role in calling audience’s attention to one or more aspects of a product or service. Normally slogans claim that the advertised product or service is of the highest quality, or is the most delicious, the most inexpensive, or nutritious… one. The slogans should point out, at least, the most important advantage of a product, or respond to the audience’s needs, or offer more benefits for their future/probable customers.

Examination of the Effects of Emotional Intelligence and Authentic Leadership on the Employees in the Organizations

Zafer Adigüzel; Eda Kuloglu

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 13-30
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2019.60412

In the highly competitive environment of the business world, organizations implement human resource policies and practices to increase the motivation and performance of employees. Efforts to keep employee turnover at minimum levels are directly proportional to employee satisfaction and their willingness to stay in the organization. Employees’ dissatisfaction, leaders’ attitudes and behaviours, human resources policies determine the life of the organizations. The increase in the employment turnover rate can decrease the performance of the organization, bring additional costs and cause employee trainings to be ineffective. In particular, the qualified employees can easily leave the organization if they do not like the management approach leads to the formation of different management understandings and perspectives. The leadership style of the managers and the human resources policies can shape the future of the organizations.  Therefore, it is important to conduct studies in this field to help the senior managers to make decisions and demonstrate their leadership roles. The sample of this study consists of 498 white-collar employees working in the private and public sector. The findings were subjected to factor and reliability analyses by using IBM SPSS 23 program. The hypotheses were tested by regression analysis and the results were evaluated and presented accordingly.

Effect of Family Influence, Personal Interest and Economic Considerations on Career Choice amongst Undergraduate Students in Higher Educational Institutions of Vehari, Pakistan

Asad Afzal Humayon; Shoaib Raza; Rao Aamir Khan; Noor ul ain Ansari

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 129-142
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60333

This study examined the effect of family influence, personal interest, and economic considerations in career choice amongst undergraduate students. The present study used quantitative research design. Target population was undergraduate students of higher educational institutions in Vehari, Pakistan. Cross-sectional data was used in this study. For data collection simple random sampling technique was used. The data was collected through structured questionnaire. The descriptive, demographic, reliability, correlation, and multiple regression analyses were applied to find answer to research questions. The results of regression analysis showed that the family influence, personal interest and economic considerations exercised big influence on the career choice of students. The Limitations of the study, suggestion for the future study, theoretical and practical implications were also discussed in this study.

Effect of intrinsic rewards on task performance of employees: Mediating role of motivation

Rizwan Qaiser Danish; Muhammad Khalid Khan; Ahmad Usman Shahid; Iram Raza; Asad Afzal Humayon

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 33-46
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60415

The basic purpose of this study was to examine the effect of reward management system, especially intrinsic rewards on task performance with the mediating role of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation of employees working in the banks in the capital of Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. The secondary purpose of this study was to explore what level of performance these employees demonstrate towards their organizations when they are rewarded intrinsically and when they are motivated due to these reward management system accordingly. In this study, we collected data through self-administered questionnaires applying correlational explanatory research design.  We distributed 300 questionnaires among which 290 were returned resulting in a response rate of 96%. The analysis of the data revealed that intrinsic rewards have positive impact on task performance of employees working in banks and motivation and its dimensions, i.e., intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and job satisfaction mediated this relationship. Considering the importance of appreciations received by bankers in the form of rewards and their effect on extra role performance and sophisticated management, policy makers should take necessary steps for improving the reward management system which will increase the task performance of employees because they will be motivated by these performance appraisal techniques.

Performance appraisal bias and errors: The influences and consequences

Mahmoud Javidmehr; Mehrdad Ebrahimpour

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 286-302
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60464

Individual performance evaluation (PE) provides a link between individual performance and organizational performance. PE is of considerable importance in human resource management (HRM). Lack of evaluation in various organizational dimensions, such as evaluation of resources and facilities, employees, and organizational goals and strategies is considered a serious disadvantage of organizations. Moreover, lack of evaluation in a system is regarded as lack of communication with internal and external environments which leads to organizational senility and, ultimately, death. In this paper a meta-analysis is used to review literature from various sources available on performance appraisal and influences of bias and errors in evaluation in Sabzevar. The results showed that PE system can result in improvement of the performance of both employees and organizations. Decrease in errors and bias can bring about employee performance improvement as well as an increase in satisfaction with and efficiency
of evaluation system.

The impact of organizational culture on organizational performance: The mediating role of employee’s organizational commitment

Amin Nikpour

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 65-72
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2017.60432

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mediating role of employee’s organizational commitment on the relationship between organizational culture and organizational performance. This study was descriptive and correlational research that was conducted through the survey method. The study population consisted of all employees in education office of Kerman province and 190 persons were selected as volume of sample by using Cochran’s formula. The data gathering tools were organizational culture, organizational commitment, and organizational performance questionnaires. Descriptive and inferential statistics (structural equation modeling through path analysis) were used to analyze the data. The data was analyzed using SPSS and AMOS softwares. The findings of the research indicated that suggested model had appropriate fit and organizational culture beyond its direct impact exerted indirect impact on organizational performance through the mediation of employee’s organizational commitment that the extent of indirect impact was significantly higher than direct impact. 

Leadership 4.0: Digital Leaders in the Age of Industry 4.0

Birgit Oberer; Alptekin Erkollar

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 404-412
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60332

Industry 4.0 stands for ‘fourth industrial revolution and is a term referring to rapid transformations in the design, production, implementation, operation, and service of manufacturing systems, products, and components. To get the most out of Industry 4.0 technologies, organizations will have to heavily invest in building capabilities in the following dimensions: data and connectivity, analytics and intelligence, conversion to the physical world, and human-machine interaction. In this study, the human dimension of industry 4.0 has priority, by analyzing behavioral leadership theories that focus on the study of the specific behaviors of a leader (the leader behavior is the predictor of his leadership influences and is the best determinant of his leadership success). A two dimensional 4.0 leadership style matrix was developed (x-axis: innovation/technology concern; y-axis: people concern). The results of this study revealed that the developed industry 4.0 leadership style might have the dimensions of first-year students, social, technological or digital, where the 4.0 digital leader forms the highest reachable level in the 4.0 leadership matrix.

CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT AND BUSINESS STRATEGIES

Rozitta Chittaie

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 13-22
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2012.60210

Changes in the current competitive e environment, increasing simplicity of penetrating into the
competitive market, and rapid grow wth of information technology are of motives for pe erforming
activities in such an environment (6 69). Pursuing the objective of improving customer relaationship, some companies, today, step into rapid and instant development of their markets (44 4). These companies, adopting customer relatio onship management systems, can earn and retain their c customers loyalty. Consequently, designing cus stomer relationship management strategies can lead t to market protection, customer value increase, and greater customer satisfaction opportunities for co ontinuous promotion of the enterprise (43). Acccordingly, regarding the complexity and the variety of strategies associated with managing a business, , information-related capability seems to be a vital and d essential capability for earning profit from ccompanies activities and competition with peers (69)). Hence, information and relations are employe ed for managing the firms as vital tools for seizing opp portunities and tackling future issues. Given the iinformation only employed to support a company’s per rformance making crucial decision about surrrounding environment, increasing competitive abilityy of the enterprise will be extremely difficult for the company (68). Moreover, since increase of co ompetitive ability is accompanied by making gre eater profit for trade, methods of raising competitive abiility is an interesting and critical issue. Thereforre, fostering unity in the interrelated sectors through infformation technology, cost reduction, and deve elopment of low-level relations with customers, compaanies can achieve greater profitability (69).

Effect of Family Influence, Personal Interest and Economic Considerations on Career Choice amongst Undergraduate Students in Higher Educational Institutions of Vehari, Pakistan

Asad Afzal Humayon; Shoaib Raza; Rao Aamir Khan; Noor ul ain Ansari

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 129-142
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60333

This study examined the effect of family influence, personal interest, and economic considerations in career choice amongst undergraduate students. The present study used quantitative research design. Target population was undergraduate students of higher educational institutions in Vehari, Pakistan. Cross-sectional data was used in this study. For data collection simple random sampling technique was used. The data was collected through structured questionnaire. The descriptive, demographic, reliability, correlation, and multiple regression analyses were applied to find answer to research questions. The results of regression analysis showed that the family influence, personal interest and economic considerations exercised big influence on the career choice of students. The Limitations of the study, suggestion for the future study, theoretical and practical implications were also discussed in this study.

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