About Journal

International Journal of Organizational Leadership is devoted to theoretical and empirical research concerning organizational behavior, organizational psychology, and managers leadership tactics and consequences.Topics covered by the journal include perception, cognition, judgment, attitudes, emotion, well-being, motivation, choice, and performance. Its specific purposes are to foster an improved understanding of how people in an organization be leaded and how leadership can be affected by organizations business conducting. This journal brings together a focus...
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Examining the Influence of Workplace Bullying on Job Burnout: Mediating Effect of Psychological Capital and Psychological Contract Violation

Muhammad Ali; Hina Bilal; Basharat Raza; Muhammad Usman Ghani

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2019.60467

Workplace Bullying (WB) is a general and severe issue on workplace in the current era resulting in adverse concerns for both employees and organizations. The issue of workplace bullying needs to be investigated on workplaces to identify the adverse effect on employees’ attitudes and behaviors. The study investigates the direct association between linking between workplace bullying and Job Burnout (JB); and indirect association through the mediation of Psychological Contract Violation (PCV) and Psychological Capital (PC). The data were collected by using purposive sampling technique from 310 nurses though self-administered questionnaires employed in public and private hospitals of Lahore, Pakistan. The Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) analysis was utilized for hypotheses testing. The outcomes demonstrate that workplace bullying is directly positively related to job burnout. In other words, employees who face the workplace bullying or being bullied experience the burnout. The findings also reveal that workplace bullying indirectly influence the JB through intervening role of PC and PCV. In other words, workplace bullying reduces psychological capital which result in job burnout among employees, and result in psychological contract violation which lead toward job burnout among employees. This study provided initial empirical evidence regarding the intervening effect of psychological capital and psychological contract violation between the relationship of workplace bullying and job burnout. The implications, limitations and future directions are also discussed.

TRANSLEADQUAL Model: A Survey Instrument Developed for Transformational Leadership Style Conceptualized from SERVQUAL Model

Anantha Raj A. Arokiasamy

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 12-21
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2019.60468

When leaders nurture and identify individual talents in society, they are described as being transformational in nature. Some of the most popular leadership traits has been on transformational leadership, transactional leadership, servant leadership and most recently authentic leadership. Research on the transformational leadership has been one of the most frequently studied areas of investigation in the leadership spectrum. Although bout loads of articles have indeed explained in detail the transformational leadership style and the constructs involved but little has been said regarding the transformational leadership and service quality model together. Even though a lot of review has cited the instruments available as measures of transformational leadership quality, however, there is much evidence to support the gap conceptualizing the transformational leadership with service quality model. Hence the term TRANSLEADQUAL model was used in this conceptual paper to describe the development of this instrument used for gauging employee perceptions of the leadership service quality in private organizations. This paper employed the TRANSLEADQUAL conceptualized from the 22-item instrument (called SERVQUAL) used for assessing customer perceptions of service quality in business organizations. As a generic model for many exceptional studies, SERVQUAL is truly valued and appreciated by many academicians and practitioners worldwide. The paper identified a truly novel concept and recommend survey instrument for transformational leadership style management conceptualized from the generic SERVQUAL Model.

Management of Regional Corporate Innovation Projects Using Compound Real Options

Sergey Yashin; Nadezhda Yashina; Egor Koshelev

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 22-36
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2019.60469

The purpose of this research is to develop a cost estimation model of a project with its real options. This issue is particularly attributed to the selection of an adequate evaluation model. However, despite the high computational accuracy of a particular model, it can scarcely ever meet the challenge of estimating the cost of compound real options. They may be of two types: 1) options, at the heart of which there are a few basic assets, i.e. projects or project development scenarios; 2) options, at the heart of which there are other options acting as basic assets (options on options). This research presents a model for evaluating compound real options of the first type, i.e. those whose basic assets include various projects and their development scenarios. The technical structure of such compound real options consist in supplementing project evaluation that has been already conducted using the net present value with a number of real options such as an option to scale down a business, an option to abandon a business, an option to develop a business, an option to expand an experience, an option to switch over a business, and an option to delay a project start.

Do Management Jobs Make Women Happier as Well? Empirical Evidence for Switzerland

Yvonne Seiler Zimmermann; Gabrielle Wanzenried

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 37-53
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2019.60470

Management jobs are typically associated with a higher level of responsibility, more interesting work, a higher pay check and more social prestige, but also to a larger commitment, longer work hours and less time for family and leisure as well as more stress compared to non-management jobs. This study investigates the impacts of a management position on satisfaction with life in general, often causally called happiness, job satisfaction as well as satisfaction with the financial situation. In particular, the paper also explores potential differences between men and women in this respect. We use data from the Swiss Houshehold Panel (SHP) up to the year 2017 and estimate ordinal generalized linear models (OGLM) in order to explain the different satisfaction variables by work-related, person-specific, and integration-specific factors. Also, we suggest a new approach to control for reverse causality. In contrast to other studies, we find that management positions do not only increase the overall subjective well-being for men, but also for women. Interferences between work and private life decrease the subjective well-being overall, but men in management positions additionally witness negative effects from these interferences, while women in management position seem to be more stress-resistant. Our findings reveal some fundamental differences between men and women with respect to person- and job-related factors affecting satisfaction with life in general as well as with the professional situation. Also, the results point to the existing and still largely unexploited potential of having women in management positions.

Prioritizing and Analyzing Key Factors of Succeeding Knowledge-Based Organizations Using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP)

Somayeh Hosseinzadeh; Toraj Mojibi; Seyyed Mehdi Alvani; Javad Rezaeian

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 54-69
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2019.60471

In this knowledge era, educational institutes and researchers are considered fundamental developing bases for societies, and thus identifying and prioritizing key factors of succeeding knowledge-based organizations is an undeniable requirement. Therefore, the present study identifies and prioritizes key factors of succeeding knowledge-based organizations and defines their importance level. The data were collected through research-made questionnaire. The content validity and reliability of the questionnaire were reported. By distributing questionnaires among experts, and adding or removing some regulations, eighteen factors were ultimately categorized into three groups. The results obtained from analytical hierarchy process (AHP) revealed that the significant key factors of succeeding knowledge-based organization are cultural, structural, and behavioral criteria, respectively. These results help managers in developing knowledge-based organization.

The Effect of strategic leadership and empowerment on job satisfaction of the employees of Guilan University

Mostafa Ebrahimpour Azbari; Mohsen Akbari; Milad Hooshmand Chaijani

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 453-464
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60230

The methods for the management and leadership of educational and research organizations has always been a question of some researchers. With the emergence of the strategic management in educational organizations, different views were raised about the management of these institutions whether it is possible to apply issues related to the business and educational administration field. They both agree on the difference between educational environment and business environment. This difference leads to different research areas which one of them is the managers’ educational leadership style. Regarding to the educational research centers’ management, strategic leadership is one of leadership styles. This paper examined the effect of this leadership style on empowerment and job satisfaction of employees of Guilan University. The statistical population of the study consisted of 235 employees of Guilan University. Smart PLS software and Structural Equation Modeling were used for data analysis. The results showed that the style of strategic leadership and employee empowerment had a significant positive effect on job satisfaction.

The relationship between glass ceiling and power distance as a cultural variable by a new method

Naide Jahangirov; Guler Saglam Ari; Seymur Jahangirov; Nuray Guneri Tosunoglu

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 465-483
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60300

Glass ceiling symbolizes a variety of barriers and obstacles that arise from gender inequality at business life. With this mind, culture influences gender dynamics. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between the glass ceiling and the power distance as a cultural variable within organizations. Gender variable is taken as a moderator variable in relationship between the concepts. In addition to conventional correlation analysis, we employed a new method to investigate this relationship in detail. The survey data were obtained from 109 people working at a research center which operated as a part of the non-profit private university in Ankara, Turkey. The relationship between the variables was revealed by a new method which was developed as an addition to the correlation in survey.  The analysis revealed that the female staff perceived the glass ceiling and the power distance more intensely than the male staff. In addition, the medium level relation was determined between the power distance and the glass ceiling perception among female staff.

An investigation into the relationship between the organizational intelligence and the performance of Melli and Mehr Eghtesad banks managers in Ardabil

Fatemeh Bagheri Toolarood; Shahram Mirzaei Daryani

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 374-391
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60345

The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the organizational intelligence and the performance of Melli and Mehr Eghtesad banks managers in Ardabil. In the present study cross-correlation method was used. The population consisted of all managers and assistants of Melli and Mehr Eghtesad banks in Ardabil which were about 132 people. The main tools of data collection were a standardized questionnaire that assigned for organization intelligence and a researcher-made questionnaire measured the relationship between two variables. To test the hypothesis, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Spearman’s Correlation coefficient, and Mann-Whitney U Test Statistics were used. The findings revealed that there was a significant relationship between the organizational intelligence variables and the performance of banks managers and there was no significant difference between the organizational intelligence of Melli and Mehr Eghtesad banks managers.

Examination of the Effects of Emotional Intelligence and Authentic Leadership on the Employees in the Organizations

Zafer Adigüzel; Eda Kuloglu

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 13-30
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2019.60412

In the highly competitive environment of the business world, organizations implement human resource policies and practices to increase the motivation and performance of employees. Efforts to keep employee turnover at minimum levels are directly proportional to employee satisfaction and their willingness to stay in the organization. Employees’ dissatisfaction, leaders’ attitudes and behaviours, human resources policies determine the life of the organizations. The increase in the employment turnover rate can decrease the performance of the organization, bring additional costs and cause employee trainings to be ineffective. In particular, the qualified employees can easily leave the organization if they do not like the management approach leads to the formation of different management understandings and perspectives. The leadership style of the managers and the human resources policies can shape the future of the organizations.  Therefore, it is important to conduct studies in this field to help the senior managers to make decisions and demonstrate their leadership roles. The sample of this study consists of 498 white-collar employees working in the private and public sector. The findings were subjected to factor and reliability analyses by using IBM SPSS 23 program. The hypotheses were tested by regression analysis and the results were evaluated and presented accordingly.

Effect of Family Influence, Personal Interest and Economic Considerations on Career Choice amongst Undergraduate Students in Higher Educational Institutions of Vehari, Pakistan

Asad Afzal Humayon; Shoaib Raza; Rao Aamir Khan; Noor ul ain Ansari

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 129-142
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60333

This study examined the effect of family influence, personal interest, and economic considerations in career choice amongst undergraduate students. The present study used quantitative research design. Target population was undergraduate students of higher educational institutions in Vehari, Pakistan. Cross-sectional data was used in this study. For data collection simple random sampling technique was used. The data was collected through structured questionnaire. The descriptive, demographic, reliability, correlation, and multiple regression analyses were applied to find answer to research questions. The results of regression analysis showed that the family influence, personal interest and economic considerations exercised big influence on the career choice of students. The Limitations of the study, suggestion for the future study, theoretical and practical implications were also discussed in this study.

Examination of the Effects of Emotional Intelligence and Authentic Leadership on the Employees in the Organizations

Zafer Adigüzel; Eda Kuloglu

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 13-30
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2019.60412

In the highly competitive environment of the business world, organizations implement human resource policies and practices to increase the motivation and performance of employees. Efforts to keep employee turnover at minimum levels are directly proportional to employee satisfaction and their willingness to stay in the organization. Employees’ dissatisfaction, leaders’ attitudes and behaviours, human resources policies determine the life of the organizations. The increase in the employment turnover rate can decrease the performance of the organization, bring additional costs and cause employee trainings to be ineffective. In particular, the qualified employees can easily leave the organization if they do not like the management approach leads to the formation of different management understandings and perspectives. The leadership style of the managers and the human resources policies can shape the future of the organizations.  Therefore, it is important to conduct studies in this field to help the senior managers to make decisions and demonstrate their leadership roles. The sample of this study consists of 498 white-collar employees working in the private and public sector. The findings were subjected to factor and reliability analyses by using IBM SPSS 23 program. The hypotheses were tested by regression analysis and the results were evaluated and presented accordingly.

Leadership 4.0: Digital Leaders in the Age of Industry 4.0

Birgit Oberer; Alptekin Erkollar

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 404-412
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60332

Industry 4.0 stands for ‘fourth industrial revolution and is a term referring to rapid transformations in the design, production, implementation, operation, and service of manufacturing systems, products, and components. To get the most out of Industry 4.0 technologies, organizations will have to heavily invest in building capabilities in the following dimensions: data and connectivity, analytics and intelligence, conversion to the physical world, and human-machine interaction. In this study, the human dimension of industry 4.0 has priority, by analyzing behavioral leadership theories that focus on the study of the specific behaviors of a leader (the leader behavior is the predictor of his leadership influences and is the best determinant of his leadership success). A two dimensional 4.0 leadership style matrix was developed (x-axis: innovation/technology concern; y-axis: people concern). The results of this study revealed that the developed industry 4.0 leadership style might have the dimensions of first-year students, social, technological or digital, where the 4.0 digital leader forms the highest reachable level in the 4.0 leadership matrix.

Behaviors of Transformational Leadership in Promoting Good Governance at the Palestinian Public Sector

Mohamed Omar Elmasry; Norhani Bakri

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2019.60265

Good governance is considered one of the significant requirements for development and competency in the public-sector organisations. However, according to the Worldwide Governance Report, the state of Palestine has been experiencing a poor quality of governance. The motivation behind this study is to seek a more in-depth understanding of determining the role of transformational leadership in promoting the principles of good governance in the Palestinian public sector. This study employed total population sampling with data collected from 342 general managers in the government sector in Gaza strip. Partial least square of structural equation modelling was used for data analyses. Findings of the study revealed a positive and significant relationship between all transformational leadership behaviours and good governance except for inspirational motivation. Also, the findings confirmed that governments, by practising transformational leadership, that, in turn, results in promoting good governance. The current study has contributed to literature by introducing new empirical evidence in organisational studies of the role of transformational leadership behaviours in improving good governance especially in developing countries such as Palestine. Therefore, this study suggests that it is advisable for public organisations to invest in transformational leadership training and encourage all behaviors to improve the level of good governance.

The Mediating Effect of Job Satisfaction on the Relationship of HR Practices and Employee Job Performance: Empirical Evidence from Higher Education Sector

Muhammad Asad khan; Rosman Md Yusoff; Altaf Hussain; Fadillah Binti Ismail

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 78-94
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2019.60392

The aim of this research is to analyze the effect of human resource practices (HR) on employee job performance under the mediating effect of job satisfaction. A total of 300 faculty members from six public sector universities responded to the self-administered questionnaire. The findings come from both descriptive statistics and inferential statistics using cross-sectional data which was performed at the expediency of the scholar. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed using structural equational modelling (SEM) to obtain the results of the study. This study has found that HR practices: recruitment and selection, training and development, performance appraisal and compensation have direct and significant effect on employee job performance through job satisfaction among the university faculty members. The impact of these HR practices has widely been studied and their importance has acknowledged. However, the number of studies addressing this issue in public-sector universities is extremely scarce. This study has addressed that gap. The findings of the study, if given serious note by the policy makers in the respective field, are expected to improve employee job performance. The study is expected to have enriched the body of knowledge on the mediating effect of job satisfaction on the relationship of HR practices and employee job performance in the target population and has validated past findings.

Performance appraisal bias and errors: The influences and consequences

Mahmoud Javidmehr; Mehrdad Ebrahimpour

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 286-302
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60464

Individual performance evaluation (PE) provides a link between individual performance and organizational performance. PE is of considerable importance in human resource management (HRM). Lack of evaluation in various organizational dimensions, such as evaluation of resources and facilities, employees, and organizational goals and strategies is considered a serious disadvantage of organizations. Moreover, lack of evaluation in a system is regarded as lack of communication with internal and external environments which leads to organizational senility and, ultimately, death. In this paper a meta-analysis is used to review literature from various sources available on performance appraisal and influences of bias and errors in evaluation in Sabzevar. The results showed that PE system can result in improvement of the performance of both employees and organizations. Decrease in errors and bias can bring about employee performance improvement as well as an increase in satisfaction with and efficiency
of evaluation system.

The impact of organizational culture on organizational performance: The mediating role of employee’s organizational commitment

Amin Nikpour

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 65-72
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2017.60432

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mediating role of employee’s organizational commitment on the relationship between organizational culture and organizational performance. This study was descriptive and correlational research that was conducted through the survey method. The study population consisted of all employees in education office of Kerman province and 190 persons were selected as volume of sample by using Cochran’s formula. The data gathering tools were organizational culture, organizational commitment, and organizational performance questionnaires. Descriptive and inferential statistics (structural equation modeling through path analysis) were used to analyze the data. The data was analyzed using SPSS and AMOS softwares. The findings of the research indicated that suggested model had appropriate fit and organizational culture beyond its direct impact exerted indirect impact on organizational performance through the mediation of employee’s organizational commitment that the extent of indirect impact was significantly higher than direct impact. 

Leadership 4.0: Digital Leaders in the Age of Industry 4.0

Birgit Oberer; Alptekin Erkollar

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 404-412
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60332

Industry 4.0 stands for ‘fourth industrial revolution and is a term referring to rapid transformations in the design, production, implementation, operation, and service of manufacturing systems, products, and components. To get the most out of Industry 4.0 technologies, organizations will have to heavily invest in building capabilities in the following dimensions: data and connectivity, analytics and intelligence, conversion to the physical world, and human-machine interaction. In this study, the human dimension of industry 4.0 has priority, by analyzing behavioral leadership theories that focus on the study of the specific behaviors of a leader (the leader behavior is the predictor of his leadership influences and is the best determinant of his leadership success). A two dimensional 4.0 leadership style matrix was developed (x-axis: innovation/technology concern; y-axis: people concern). The results of this study revealed that the developed industry 4.0 leadership style might have the dimensions of first-year students, social, technological or digital, where the 4.0 digital leader forms the highest reachable level in the 4.0 leadership matrix.

Effect of Family Influence, Personal Interest and Economic Considerations on Career Choice amongst Undergraduate Students in Higher Educational Institutions of Vehari, Pakistan

Asad Afzal Humayon; Shoaib Raza; Rao Aamir Khan; Noor ul ain Ansari

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 129-142
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60333

This study examined the effect of family influence, personal interest, and economic considerations in career choice amongst undergraduate students. The present study used quantitative research design. Target population was undergraduate students of higher educational institutions in Vehari, Pakistan. Cross-sectional data was used in this study. For data collection simple random sampling technique was used. The data was collected through structured questionnaire. The descriptive, demographic, reliability, correlation, and multiple regression analyses were applied to find answer to research questions. The results of regression analysis showed that the family influence, personal interest and economic considerations exercised big influence on the career choice of students. The Limitations of the study, suggestion for the future study, theoretical and practical implications were also discussed in this study.

CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT AND BUSINESS STRATEGIES

Rozitta Chittaie

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 13-22
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2012.60210

Changes in the current competitive e environment, increasing simplicity of penetrating into the
competitive market, and rapid grow wth of information technology are of motives for pe erforming
activities in such an environment (6 69). Pursuing the objective of improving customer relaationship, some companies, today, step into rapid and instant development of their markets (44 4). These companies, adopting customer relatio onship management systems, can earn and retain their c customers loyalty. Consequently, designing cus stomer relationship management strategies can lead t to market protection, customer value increase, and greater customer satisfaction opportunities for co ontinuous promotion of the enterprise (43). Acccordingly, regarding the complexity and the variety of strategies associated with managing a business, , information-related capability seems to be a vital and d essential capability for earning profit from ccompanies activities and competition with peers (69)). Hence, information and relations are employe ed for managing the firms as vital tools for seizing opp portunities and tackling future issues. Given the iinformation only employed to support a company’s per rformance making crucial decision about surrrounding environment, increasing competitive abilityy of the enterprise will be extremely difficult for the company (68). Moreover, since increase of co ompetitive ability is accompanied by making gre eater profit for trade, methods of raising competitive abiility is an interesting and critical issue. Thereforre, fostering unity in the interrelated sectors through infformation technology, cost reduction, and deve elopment of low-level relations with customers, compaanies can achieve greater profitability (69).

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Professor Mary Jo Hatch is joined to the editorial board of IJOL
It is our immense pleasure to announce that Professor Mary Jo Hatch is joined to the editorial board of International Journal of Organizational Leadership and New World, New Business: A ...

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Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI) of Thomson Reuters indexed IJOL
It is our immense pleasure to announce that the International Journal of Organizational Leadership (IJOL) has been accepted for coverage in the Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI) of Thomson Reuters. ...

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