About Journal

International Journal of Organizational Leadership is devoted to theoretical and empirical research concerning organizational behaviour, organizational psychology, and managers' leadership tactics and consequences.  Topics covered by the journal include perception, cognition, judgment, attitudes, emotion, well-being, motivation, choice, and performance. Its specific purposes are to foster an improved understanding of how people in an organization are led and how business conduct can affect leadership. This journal brings together a focus on leadership for scholars,...
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How Followers’ Perception of Insider Status Influences the Relationship Between Servant Leadership and Work Attitude?

Shu-Chuan Jennifer Yeh; Wen Chun Wang; Yi-Hsien Wang; Thomas T. H. Wan; Hsueh-Chih Chou

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 127-140
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60623

Servant leadership starts with an individual whose main interests are to serve, inspire and lead followers. Thus, the servant leader is an individual who is always pursuing and looking for better ways to achieve shared goals with fellow workers. The current study investigates the influencing mechanism of servant leadership on job satisfaction based on the social identity theory. Specifically, the purpose of this study is to develop a model of perceived insider status that mediates the relationships between servant leadership and employee job satisfaction. Data were collected from matched 90 leaders and 285 followers from the service industry in Taiwan. To avoid common method variance issue, we collected data across three-time points from two different sources. The statistical analyses included descriptive analysis, correlational approach, confirmatory factor analysis, and multi-level analyses. Using the bootstrapping method, the indirect effects of servant leadership on job satisfaction via perceived insider status were found to be significant. This study underscores the importance of encouraging leaders to engage in servant leader behaviors, thereby enhancing followers’ perception as insiders and improving followers' job satisfaction. Since servant leaders focus on employee-oriented tactics, it is essential to train leaders to enhance followers’ intrinsic motivation and shape their perceptions of belongingness and effectiveness. 

Tools Detecting and/or Measuring Ethical Leadership: A Systematic Literature Review

Eleftheria Argyropoulou; Antonios Spyridakis

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 141-163
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60624

The paper includes a Systematic Literature Review of the tools for detecting and/or measuring Ethical Leadership in the business world published between 2000 and 2020. The review attempts to explore, analyze and synthesize the most recent evidence from the field with the aim to summarize and integrate knowledge regarding Ethical Leadership. Our goal is to build a documentation framework for further research and future design of a more concise and accurate tool covering all possible aspects of Ethical Leadership. We choose the Systematic Literature Review method because it is structured and minimizes subjectivity when selecting and analyzing data. Our work addresses researchers/scholars, postgraduate students, PhD candidates, and private and public sector officials who need scientific evidence to support decision-making and/or policy designing. 

Managing Group Dynamics and Effectiveness of University Staff: Evidence from Nigeria

Eromafuru Godbless Edward; Nkiruka Livina Amaluwa

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 164-188
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60625

Research evidence linking managing group dynamic (GPD) to the effectiveness of academic and non-academic staff of Nigerian universities, is ostensibly scarce. While existing studies have majorly addressed the performance impact of group dynamics in general perspectives, there is a gap in gauging how managing dynamics in groups could lead to the effectiveness of staff of Nigerian universities. Built on two complementary theories, the study has sought to investigate the relationship between pooled constructs of group dynamics, including social integration (SI), team leadership (TL), interpersonal facilitation (IF), group efficacy (GE); and effectiveness of university staff in those measures as in productivity (PD), adaptability (AD), and flexibility (FL). The sample size of 253 staff was selected from 2050 staff, and a self-structured questionnaire was designed. Instrument reliability was confirmed for the individual construct of GPD and staff effectiveness (SE) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) which was used to validate the instruments. The frequency and percentage table, means, and standard deviations were engaged as descriptive tools. Linear and multiple regressions and variance inflation factor were designed to test hypotheses and relationships. Findings revealed a significant statistical relationship between the dimensions of GPD and measures of staff effectiveness except for the dimension of GPD (SI) with a weak aggregate predictive contribution. The study posited the need for management of the federal universities to forge integration with staff through adapting strategies of group dynamics to improve the effectiveness of academic and non-academic staff of universities. Especially, staff with innate creative ability and genius for innovation should be supported and motivated to reach their potential.

Team Leadership Behaviors from the Viewpoints of Healthcare Team Members: A Qualitative Study

Nazanin Shamaeian Razavi; Roghayeh Gandomkar; Ali Jafarian; Mohammad Jalili

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 189-205
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.6026

Team leadership in healthcare settings plays a fundamental role in ensuring that high-quality patient care is delivered. This study is the first to explore team leadership behaviors from the viewpoint of Iranian healthcare team members. This qualitative study was performed using directed content analysis. Face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 healthcare team members between October 2019 and June 2020. After each interview, the transcripts and related notes were read several times, semantic units were identified, and related codes were labeled. The specified codes were organized into subcategories and categories based on a predetermined framework placed in three main categories: transition, action, and interpersonal skills. Behaviors extracted from the transcripts consisted of 83 codes placed in 21 subcategories, and nine categories were assigned to three main categories of the predetermined framework. In the transition processes, situational analysis, teambuilding, debriefing, and feedback-seeking were the most influential leadership behaviors on the success of teamwork from the participants' viewpoints, especially members of surgical and emergency teams. Clinical competency, resource management, and coordination were more important leadership behaviors in the action processes, particularly in the opinion of attending doctors and nurses. Most participants emphasized conflict management, stress management, speaking up, encouragement, and accountability in interpersonal processes. This study improves our understanding of the leadership behaviors that influence successful teamwork achievement in healthcare settings. The findings have implications for further research and the enhancement of team leadership in healthcare settings, the development of structured team leadership training programs, and reliable assessment tools.

A Phenomenological Investigation on Ethical Leadership and Workplace Engagement from a Multi-Cultural Perspective

Nosheen Adnan; Omar Khalid Bhatti; Elif Baykal

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 206-234
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60327

Despite continuous attempts to introduce employee engagement measures, leaders worldwide have been increasingly concerned about diminishing employee engagement levels. The issue of workplace engagement continues to be a source of contention for academics and practitioners alike. There is still a need to comprehend this phenomenon since previous research lacks a thorough understanding of employee work engagement concerning ethical leadership. This qualitative study explores the perceptions of the leaders working in service organizations regarding ethical leadership on employee work engagement in three countries, i.e., Malaysia, Turkey, and Pakistan. The phenomenon of work engagement was explored in this study. The theory of self-determination supports the proposed theoretical framework of the current study. Purposive sampling was applied to select 28 leaders in the service sector. Semi-structured interviews were performed to understand employee engagement better using participant observations, opinions, strategic perspectives, and the employee handbook and recordings of interviews and meetings with service sector leaders. The findings highlighted eight major ethical leadership themes suggested by 28 managers in the interviews. Eight themes of ethical leadership are (1) Role Modeling, (2) Trust, (3 Honesty, (4) Integrity, (5) Justice, (6) Religiosity, (7) Responsibility, (8) Intellectual competence. The present study found that leaders applying different strategies and understanding the importance of employee engagement could improve employee engagement and have a more robust workforce and beneficial organization. 

The Conceptual Review on the Impact of Organizational Justice on Workplace Deviance and the Mediating Role of Psychological Contract Breach

Shuja Ilyas Chaudhary; Omar Khalid Bhatti; Huseyin Cipran; Ali Haider Bajwa

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 235-252
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60328

The prevalence of deviant behavior such as fraud, robbery, withholding effort, hostile acts, and sexual harassment in the workplace is a major problem for organizations. For good reasons, it is highly significant for executives and researchers to avoid deviant activity in the workplace. A recent report revealed that employees are found to be more involved than customers in deviant activities at the workplace. One in every fifteen employees steals from their employer.” The study finds that 33 to 75% of all workers have participated in deviant behaviors, and as many as 42% of women have been sexually abused at work. This article aims to analyze the phenomena of workplace deviance and destruction caused by workplace deviance in the form of huge psychological and financial losses to organizations. First, we discuss the need for research on workplace deviance, especially in the collectivistic culture, by reviewing previous studies from deviance literature. Next, we present the role of organizational justice in triggering workplace deviance. Then we also propose a new mediating variable in the form of a Psychological Contract Breach between Organizational justice and Workplace deviance. This paper also contributes significantly to the dimensions/facets of Organizational Justice. The presented theoretical framework can be useful for conducting future empirical research. Finally, we present the conclusion and future research in conducting cross-national research with respect to workplace deviance.

A Dual-Process Account of Major Social Constructs of Motivation: Implications for Leadership Scholarship

Mohammad Zarei; Abdallah Issahaka

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, In Press
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60329

There is inconsistency in positioning general motivation constructs within the broader leadership research. The main purpose of the current study was to review major social constructs of motivation applied in leadership studies and then empirically investigate their associations. Data was collected using self-reported measures from 316 business students to test our theoretical models. Properties of the models, including validity and common method bias, were assessed and controlled before hypothesis testing using variance-based structural equation modeling. This study offers several original contributions. First, reviewing the literature, we identify major social constructs of motivation central to leadership studies including self-efficacy, self-regulation, causal attributions, goal orientation, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Second, applying the regulatory focus perspective, we offer a new taxonomy of the constructs (promotional vs. preventive). Third, using empirical data, we establish a nomological network amongst the six social constructs of motivation. The study yielded an integrative theory of motivation by establishing a network of cause-and-effect amongst six popular social constructs of motivation in leadership research. Two complementary (promotional vs. preventive) models of motivation were developed to predict dimensions of creative outcome (idea generation and exploration). Forth, building on the findings, we provide early evidence for further decomposition of general self-efficacy constructs into “promotional self-efficacy” vs. “preventive self-efficacy”. Implications of the findings for leadership research were also discussed.

Identification and Assessment of Human Manipulation in the Work Environment

Anna Tomkova; Barbara Nicole Čigarská

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, In Press
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60330

This article aims to provide an overview of knowledge related to the complexity of manipulation in the work environment and focus on the specification of the issue. The attributes of manipulation in the work environment were analyzed based on the degree of perception of social intelligence factors, the level of manipulation, and the tendency to distrust others. The aim of the research was to examine statistically significant associations between the number of years of service and
the occurrence of manipulation in work. The research was carried out via MPS and MESI methodologies. The research sample (N = 183) comprised working students and employees from the private and public spheres from various work areas in Slovakia. In conclusion, no statistically significant associations existed between the number of worked years and manipulation at the workplace. Statistically, significant gender differences were documented in men within the attributes of manipulation. Higher average values ​​for attributes of empathy, social irritability, and mistrust were found in women.

Leadership Styles and Total Quality Management (TQM) Implementation: Competitor Orientation and Inter-Functional Coordination as Mediators

Desalegn Urgessa Yadeta; Matiwos Ensermu Jaleta; Mesfin Workineh Melese

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, In Press
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60331

This paper examines the mediating role of competitor orientation and inter-functional coordination between leadership styles and Total Quality Management (TQM) implementation. The empirical data for this study were drawn from a survey of 203 leaders from manufacturing and service firms in Addis Ababa and its surrounding cities to examine the reliability and validity of the independent constructs; mediating constructs (i.e., competitor orientation and inter-functional coordination); and implementation of TQM. The data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to examine the mediating role of competitor orientation and inter-functional coordination between leadership styles and the implementation of TQM. The result of this study revealed that servant and transactional leadership did have a positive and direct effect on the implementation of TQM, while the relationships were further positively mediated by inter-functional coordination for the servant leadership-TQM relationship and negatively mediated by competitor orientation for the transactional leadership-TQM relationship. On the other hand, transformational leadership had only a positive and indirect effect on implementing TQM through competitor orientation and inter-functional coordination. Our sample companies came from different industries (both manufacturing and service sectors). Hence, future studies could consider samples from manufacturing and service sectors independently to control and reduce the bias resulting from industry differences. The results can be beneficial for the current organizational leaders to achieve appropriate leadership styles and understand the mediating role of competitor orientation and inter- functional coordination between leadership styles and the implementation of TQM.

Examination of the Effects of Emotional Intelligence and Authentic Leadership on the Employees in the Organizations

Zafer Adigüzel; Eda Kuloglu

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2019, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 13-30
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2019.60412

In the highly competitive environment of the business world, organizations implement human resource policies and practices to increase the motivation and performance of employees. Efforts to keep employee turnover at minimum levels are directly proportional to employee satisfaction and their willingness to stay in the organization. Employees’ dissatisfaction, leaders’ attitudes and behaviours, human resources policies determine the life of the organizations. The increase in the employment turnover rate can decrease the performance of the organization, bring additional costs and cause employee trainings to be ineffective. In particular, the qualified employees can easily leave the organization if they do not like the management approach leads to the formation of different management understandings and perspectives. The leadership style of the managers and the human resources policies can shape the future of the organizations.  Therefore, it is important to conduct studies in this field to help the senior managers to make decisions and demonstrate their leadership roles. The sample of this study consists of 498 white-collar employees working in the private and public sector. The findings were subjected to factor and reliability analyses by using IBM SPSS 23 program. The hypotheses were tested by regression analysis and the results were evaluated and presented accordingly.

An investigation into the relationship between the organizational intelligence and the performance of Melli and Mehr Eghtesad banks managers in Ardabil

Fatemeh Bagheri Toolarood; Shahram Mirzaei Daryani

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2015, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 374-391
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60345

The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the organizational intelligence and the performance of Melli and Mehr Eghtesad banks managers in Ardabil. In the present study cross-correlation method was used. The population consisted of all managers and assistants of Melli and Mehr Eghtesad banks in Ardabil which were about 132 people. The main tools of data collection were a standardized questionnaire that assigned for organization intelligence and a researcher-made questionnaire measured the relationship between two variables. To test the hypothesis, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Spearman’s Correlation coefficient, and Mann-Whitney U Test Statistics were used. The findings revealed that there was a significant relationship between the organizational intelligence variables and the performance of banks managers and there was no significant difference between the organizational intelligence of Melli and Mehr Eghtesad banks managers.

The relationship between glass ceiling and power distance as a cultural variable by a new method

Naide Jahangirov; Guler Saglam Ari; Seymur Jahangirov; Nuray Guneri Tosunoglu

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2015, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 465-483
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60300

Glass ceiling symbolizes a variety of barriers and obstacles that arise from gender inequality at business life. With this mind, culture influences gender dynamics. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between the glass ceiling and the power distance as a cultural variable within organizations. Gender variable is taken as a moderator variable in relationship between the concepts. In addition to conventional correlation analysis, we employed a new method to investigate this relationship in detail. The survey data were obtained from 109 people working at a research center which operated as a part of the non-profit private university in Ankara, Turkey. The relationship between the variables was revealed by a new method which was developed as an addition to the correlation in survey.  The analysis revealed that the female staff perceived the glass ceiling and the power distance more intensely than the male staff. In addition, the medium level relation was determined between the power distance and the glass ceiling perception among female staff.

The Effect of strategic leadership and empowerment on job satisfaction of the employees of Guilan University

Mostafa Ebrahimpour Azbari; Mohsen Akbari; Milad Hooshmand Chaijani

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2015, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 453-464
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60230

The methods for the management and leadership of educational and research organizations has always been a question of some researchers. With the emergence of the strategic management in educational organizations, different views were raised about the management of these institutions whether it is possible to apply issues related to the business and educational administration field. They both agree on the difference between educational environment and business environment. This difference leads to different research areas which one of them is the managers’ educational leadership style. Regarding to the educational research centers’ management, strategic leadership is one of leadership styles. This paper examined the effect of this leadership style on empowerment and job satisfaction of employees of Guilan University. The statistical population of the study consisted of 235 employees of Guilan University. Smart PLS software and Structural Equation Modeling were used for data analysis. The results showed that the style of strategic leadership and employee empowerment had a significant positive effect on job satisfaction.

How Cultural Differences Influence Conflict Within an Organization: A Case Study of Near East University

Ayşe Gözde Koyuncu; Rufaro Denise Chipindu

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2019, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 112-128
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60478

The culture that people come from has played an important part in shaping any society. Culture is of vital importance since it assists in the way people live and articulating the manner in which information among people is administered. Miscommunication often arises due to the differences in cultures that exist that leads to people misunderstanding of other cultural contexts. Individuals from certain cultures may deal with conflict easily while others tend to find it difficult in dealing with it amenably. This leads to the system of sweeping it under the carpet (De Drue, Blom, & Hagendoom, 2007). Conflict is triggered when there are cultural differences between individuals within an organization or through general interaction with one another. This often leads to cross-cultural conflict which generally occurs in the context that individuals are not willing to understand each other’s diversity in cultures. This study examines cultural differences that influence conflict within an organization. Quota Sampling was used as sampling technique. Data was grouped according to ethnicities. The study is qualitative in nature and made use of semi-structured interviews which were carried out with fifty participants from three ethnic groups. Data was analyzed using Qualitative Content analysis. Findings suggested ways that management could reduce conflict by creating an environment where all cultures interact with one another freely.

THE IMPORTANCE OF ADVERTISING SLOGANS AND THEIR PROPER DESIGNING IN BRAND EQUITY

Somayeh Abdi; Abdollah Irandoust

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 62-69
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2013.60321

The term slogan derives from Slough-ghairm, pronounced as Slogorm from Scottish Gaelic which means battle cry. Slogan is usually an unforgettable phrase that is frequently used to express an idea or purpose. Slogans have been employed in religious and political areas since long time ago, but today they are mostly used in business and trading.
They vary from other ordinary text and images, and often because of their simple structure cannot convey a lot of concepts and details. Hereupon, slogans instead of drawing specific audience, address general audience to convey their particular meanings. Brand owners pay lots of money to advertising agencies to come up with snappy advertising slogans. Advertising slogans often claim to have knowledge of something and attempt to show it.
Slogans usually serve a substantial role in calling audience’s attention to one or more aspects of a product or service. Normally slogans claim that the advertised product or service is of the highest quality, or is the most delicious, the most inexpensive, or nutritious… one. The slogans should point out, at least, the most important advantage of a product, or respond to the audience’s needs, or offer more benefits for their future/probable customers.

Leadership 4.0: Digital Leaders in the Age of Industry 4.0

Birgit Oberer; Alptekin Erkollar

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2018, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 404-412
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60332

Industry 4.0 stands for ‘fourth industrial revolution and is a term referring to rapid transformations in the design, production, implementation, operation, and service of manufacturing systems, products, and components. To get the most out of Industry 4.0 technologies, organizations will have to heavily invest in building capabilities in the following dimensions: data and connectivity, analytics and intelligence, conversion to the physical world, and human-machine interaction. In this study, the human dimension of industry 4.0 has priority, by analyzing behavioral leadership theories that focus on the study of the specific behaviors of a leader (the leader behavior is the predictor of his leadership influences and is the best determinant of his leadership success). A two dimensional 4.0 leadership style matrix was developed (x-axis: innovation/technology concern; y-axis: people concern). The results of this study revealed that the developed industry 4.0 leadership style might have the dimensions of first-year students, social, technological or digital, where the 4.0 digital leader forms the highest reachable level in the 4.0 leadership matrix.

Leadership Competency Model-Drenica: Generalizability of Leadership Competencies

Fadil Çitaku; Hetem Ramadani

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2020, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 156-162
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60502

This paper aims to summarize the generalizability of leadership competencies published in field of leadership. This present study used the Leadership Competencies Model of Çitaku et al. (2012), which has investigated six most developed western countries (Austria (A), Germany (D), Switzerland (CH), United States of America (USA), Canada (CA) and United Kingdom (UK)) to find out leadership competencies for efficient leaders. We randomly selected 25 leadership competencies using the Research Randomizer tool and systematically researched on Google Scholar, how many times occur leadership competencies, published between the 2010 and 2020. The analysis of the related literature was conducted by employing a bibliometric analysis of the research on the Google Scholar database between 2010 and 2020. The results of present study showed that there is an outstanding interest in our randomly chosen leadership competences and that these 25 competencies can be applied in any leadership domain. The study brought out 25 important leadership competencies incorporated in seven important domains, resulting with leadership competencies model named DRENICA, which is scientifically robust and can be used in leadership training courses and programs, in all leadership domains. The study concluded that 25 randomly chosen leadership competencies are robust, generalized and can be used in any leadership domain. Future research should be designed to replicate, extend and confirm the present findings. Meanwhile, we have provided a “Leadership Competency Model-Drenica” that can be employed to teach and further investigate leadership competences.

Effects of Fatherhood on Leadership Behaviour of Managers

Bernhard Stellner

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 367-384
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60598

Becoming a father is a major life event for men and is accompanied by new role expectations and behavioural changes. While earlier research focused on the conflictual facets, more recent work-family enrichment theory emphasises the positive aspects of multiple roles. Previous quantitative and qualitative research has found that parenthood positively influences overall leadership and management behaviour at work. Our quantitative study uses a more granular definition of leadership behaviour with data from 157 male managers from Central Europe collected with a web-based survey. We find that 14 out of 15 transformational leadership behaviours (TLB) improve significantly with fatherhood. The individual behaviours supporting, recognizing, and developing progress the most. Only networking remains unaffected. Parental role enrichment outweighs conflict, and the resulting net effect correlates strongly with TLB. Also, parental role commitment and job level (position and number of subordinates) have a positive effect on TLB improvement. Parental role commitment and net enrichment show strong multicollinearity. Despite the positive effects of fatherhood on TLB in general, these decrease as the number of children increases, contradicting the intuition that "the more, the better". The findings should be considered in both managerial theory and practice as they concern the majority of men in leadership positions.

Performance appraisal bias and errors: The influences and consequences

Mahmoud Javidmehr; Mehrdad Ebrahimpour

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2015, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 286-302
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60464

Individual performance evaluation (PE) provides a link between individual performance and organizational performance. PE is of considerable importance in human resource management (HRM). Lack of evaluation in various organizational dimensions, such as evaluation of resources and facilities, employees, and organizational goals and strategies is considered a serious disadvantage of organizations. Moreover, lack of evaluation in a system is regarded as lack of communication with internal and external environments which leads to organizational senility and, ultimately, death. In this paper a meta-analysis is used to review literature from various sources available on performance appraisal and influences of bias and errors in evaluation in Sabzevar. The results showed that PE system can result in improvement of the performance of both employees and organizations. Decrease in errors and bias can bring about employee performance improvement as well as an increase in satisfaction with and efficiency
of evaluation system.

The impact of organizational culture on organizational performance: The mediating role of employee’s organizational commitment

Amin Nikpour

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2017, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 65-72
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2017.60432

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mediating role of employee’s organizational commitment on the relationship between organizational culture and organizational performance. This study was descriptive and correlational research that was conducted through the survey method. The study population consisted of all employees in education office of Kerman province and 190 persons were selected as volume of sample by using Cochran’s formula. The data gathering tools were organizational culture, organizational commitment, and organizational performance questionnaires. Descriptive and inferential statistics (structural equation modeling through path analysis) were used to analyze the data. The data was analyzed using SPSS and AMOS softwares. The findings of the research indicated that suggested model had appropriate fit and organizational culture beyond its direct impact exerted indirect impact on organizational performance through the mediation of employee’s organizational commitment that the extent of indirect impact was significantly higher than direct impact. 

Leadership 4.0: Digital Leaders in the Age of Industry 4.0

Birgit Oberer; Alptekin Erkollar

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2018, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 404-412
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60332

Industry 4.0 stands for ‘fourth industrial revolution and is a term referring to rapid transformations in the design, production, implementation, operation, and service of manufacturing systems, products, and components. To get the most out of Industry 4.0 technologies, organizations will have to heavily invest in building capabilities in the following dimensions: data and connectivity, analytics and intelligence, conversion to the physical world, and human-machine interaction. In this study, the human dimension of industry 4.0 has priority, by analyzing behavioral leadership theories that focus on the study of the specific behaviors of a leader (the leader behavior is the predictor of his leadership influences and is the best determinant of his leadership success). A two dimensional 4.0 leadership style matrix was developed (x-axis: innovation/technology concern; y-axis: people concern). The results of this study revealed that the developed industry 4.0 leadership style might have the dimensions of first-year students, social, technological or digital, where the 4.0 digital leader forms the highest reachable level in the 4.0 leadership matrix.

Effect of Family Influence, Personal Interest and Economic Considerations on Career Choice amongst Undergraduate Students in Higher Educational Institutions of Vehari, Pakistan

Asad Afzal Humayon; Shoaib Raza; Rao Aamir Khan; Noor ul ain Ansari

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2018, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 129-142
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60333

This study examined the effect of family influence, personal interest, and economic considerations in career choice amongst undergraduate students. The present study used quantitative research design. Target population was undergraduate students of higher educational institutions in Vehari, Pakistan. Cross-sectional data was used in this study. For data collection simple random sampling technique was used. The data was collected through structured questionnaire. The descriptive, demographic, reliability, correlation, and multiple regression analyses were applied to find answer to research questions. The results of regression analysis showed that the family influence, personal interest and economic considerations exercised big influence on the career choice of students. The Limitations of the study, suggestion for the future study, theoretical and practical implications were also discussed in this study.

Effects of Fatherhood on Leadership Behaviour of Managers

Bernhard Stellner

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 367-384
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60598

Becoming a father is a major life event for men and is accompanied by new role expectations and behavioural changes. While earlier research focused on the conflictual facets, more recent work-family enrichment theory emphasises the positive aspects of multiple roles. Previous quantitative and qualitative research has found that parenthood positively influences overall leadership and management behaviour at work. Our quantitative study uses a more granular definition of leadership behaviour with data from 157 male managers from Central Europe collected with a web-based survey. We find that 14 out of 15 transformational leadership behaviours (TLB) improve significantly with fatherhood. The individual behaviours supporting, recognizing, and developing progress the most. Only networking remains unaffected. Parental role enrichment outweighs conflict, and the resulting net effect correlates strongly with TLB. Also, parental role commitment and job level (position and number of subordinates) have a positive effect on TLB improvement. Parental role commitment and net enrichment show strong multicollinearity. Despite the positive effects of fatherhood on TLB in general, these decrease as the number of children increases, contradicting the intuition that "the more, the better". The findings should be considered in both managerial theory and practice as they concern the majority of men in leadership positions.

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