About Journal

International Journal of Organizational Leadership is devoted to theoretical and empirical research concerning organizational behaviour, organizational psychology, and managers' leadership tactics and consequences.  Topics covered by the journal include perception, cognition, judgment, attitudes, emotion, well-being, motivation, choice, and performance. Its specific purposes are to foster an improved understanding of how people in an organization be leaded and how leadership can be affected by organizations business conducting. This journal brings together...
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Influence of Characteristics of Self-actualization and Coping Behavior on Resistance of Teachers to Professional Stressors and Emotional Burnout

Elena Voitenko; Hryhorii Kaposloz; Serhii Myronets; Oksana Zazymko; Vasyll Osodlo

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60514

The availability of conflicting data in the scientific literature on the correlations between self-actualization, occupational stress and emotional burnout has suggested that the nature of the
relationship between occupational stress and self-actualization and emotional burnout may
change due to some other variables, such as coping strategies. The aim of the study is to
determine the nature of the relationship between emotional burnout as a result of occupational
stress with the characteristics of self-actualization and the peculiarities of coping behavior of
teachers. In a pilot study organized by the cross-sectional design, a survey of 107 Ukrainian
teachers was conducted. According to the purpose of the study, the following diagnostic
techniques were used: Victor Boyko's method of diagnosing the level of emotional burnout,
version of the Russian-language adaptation of Shostrom's self-actualization test SAT and
Ways of Coping Questionnaire. The main hypotheses of this study were tested using
correlation analysis and analysis of variance. It was found that the severity of burnout is
negatively correlated with self-actualization. In addition, the joint influence of self-actualization indicators and certain coping strategies on the nature of the formation of different
stages of emotional burnout was detected. It was also determined that coping strategies are
formed under the influence of two factors. On the one side, it is professional stress and burnout,
and on the other side, it is the desire to satisfy the need for self-actualization. The results
showed that the predictor of successful adaptation of teachers to the requirements of
professional activity are certain characteristics of the personal profile of coping behavior,
which have a mitigating effect on stress factors determined by self-actualization. Future
research is needed to determine the effectiveness of certain coping strategies on teachers'
resistance to occupational stressors and burnout over a longer period of follow-up

Moral Leadership, Shared Values, Employee Engagement, and Staff Job Performance in the University Value Chain

Eromafuru Edward Godbless

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 15-38
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60515

Myriad of discourses pouring from university podiums and social platforms have been
inundated with administrative and governance matters majorly. Not much has been echoed
about morality concerns in Nigerian tertiary institutions. Besides, history is replete with quite
a handful of literature in this area. However, none of the prior studies has developed such a
robust construct on the subject so as to capture the multiple simultaneous essences of shared
values and employee engagement in moral leadership-staff Job performance link. The study
involved a population of 3257 academic and non-academic staff from which a sample size of
327 was determined through simple random sampling. Drawing on stakeholder and social
exchange theories and using regression model and structural equation modelling as analytical
bases, results have vilified strong evidence of positive mediating effect of shared values and
job engagement in moral leadership-staff job performance relationship except a unit construct
(authentic leadership) that exhibited negative association. Finding has further foreclosed that
staff’s overall job performance will improve with panoptic constructs of moral leadership
whereas fragmented approach will only lead to sub-optimal performance. Study proposes an
inclusive framework connecting the modified constructs of moral leadership, shared values,
employee engagement, and job performance of universities’ staff. It is stressed that university
leadership obsessed with integrity found on strong ethical fibber will earn staff’s trust and
confidence and sustain university’s reputation for enduring leadership that is value laden.

Identifying Factors Influencing Visionary Leadership: An Empirical Evidence from Thai Manufacturing Industry

Walailak Atthirawong; Kaseam Bunnoiko; Wariya Panprung

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 39-53
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60516

Supply chain consists of all integrated activities that bring products to markets in the right
time, at the right place while creating value added in order to satisfy customers. The
performance of all activities in the supply chain requires the cooperation and coordination of
complex processes across all members in organizations. Successful supply chain
management relies on great leaders, who can communicate with their supply chain members
and encourage feedback systems to improve the workplace environment. The leaders have
the principal goal of making use of modern, scientific, technical and innovative methods in
the implementation of tasks and activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate
key factors affecting visionary leadership in the context of Thai manufacturing industry.
Data were collected using survey questionnaires administered to supply chain managers in
each manufacturing company located in industrial estates across the country. A total of 500
valid questionnaires were received and analyzed using structural equation modeling. The
results revealed that communication skill had the highest impact on visionary leadership,
followed by organization climate and creativity. The study outcome could be to the benefit
of managers, who strive to generate visionary leadership and realize how important it is to
incorporate communication skills as one of the most powerful instruments to improve
leadership

Transglobal Leadership as a Driver for Increasing the Employee Performance

A. Nur Insan; Masmarulan R.; Ashariana .; Nurfatwa Andriani Yasin

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 54-71
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60517

This study aims to analyze and explain the influence of transglobal leadership on employee
work motivation, the influence of transglobal leadership on organizational culture, the effect
of transglobal leadership on organizational commitment, the effect of transglobal leadership
on employee performance, the influence of motivation on employee performance, the
influence of organizational culture on employee performance, and the influence of
organizational commitment on employee performance. This research is an explanatory study
using a survey methodology. This research was conducted in 42 cooperative units of
government agencies in Makassar City. The population is 418 cooperative employees. The
sample was taken using the Stratified Random Sampling method of 180 people. Data were
collected through questionnaires and interviews. Data analysis used Partial Least Square
(PLS). The results obtained from testing of the seven hypotheses showed that there were six
hypotheses accepted because they had a positive and significant effect and one hypothesis was
rejected because it had an insignificant effect, namely the effect of organizational commitment
on employee performance. Cooperative managers need to pay more attention to relationships
with customers, review fair wages and regulations and rewards to employees, increase
understanding of shared values and meanings, increase understanding of aspects of work, and
improve employee positive attitudes

Ambidexterity in Public Organizations with an Emphasis on Managers’ Psychological Capital

Sohrab Ghanizadeh; Farzad Sattari Ardabili; Mohammad Kheirandish; Eshagh Rasouli; Mohammad Hassanzadeh

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 72-88
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60518

The purpose of the present research is to propose a psychological framework for managers’
ambidexterity in public organizations. The data were collected through 11 interviews
conducted over five months. The saturation was reached at nine interviews using conventional
content analysis. As a result, eight factors were identified to achieve ambidexterity in public
organizations, including courage, gratitude, spirituality, creativity, resilience, optimism, hope,
and self-efficacy. These factors can be used to develop a new framework for ambidexterity in
public non-profit organizations. This framework can also provide a psychological basis for
creating and strengthening managers' ability to plan ambidextrous behaviors.

Investigating Work Engagement of Highly Educated Young Employees through Applying the Job Demands-Resources Model

Widdy Muhammad Sabar Wibawa; Yoshi Takahashi; Corina D. Riantoputra

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 89-102
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60519

This study aims to investigate the applicability of the job demands and resources (JD-R)
model. While prior studies tend to focus on older employees, we investigate the potentially
effective job resources and demands specifically for the highly educated young individuals
that are the future of any organization. We collected primary cross-sectional data from 155
respondents in Indonesia with master’s or doctoral degrees, under 40 years of age, currently
working in public and private sectors. Participants completed an online questionnaire by
following a link distributed by email. PLS-SEM was used to analyze data regarding the
relationships between job resources (perceived organizational support (POS) and employee
voice), job demands (emotional demands), and work engagement. Our results indicated the
relationships for POS positively and emotional demands negatively with work engagement,
while employee voice was not significantly correlated with work engagement. Emotional
demands are considered to be perceived as stress rather than opportunity. Furthermore,
emotional demands did not moderate the correlation of POS and employee voice with work
engagement. A multi-group analysis found no significant differences between employees in
the private and public sectors. The results showed the JD-R model was partially applicable.
This study is one of few seeking to apply the JD-R model to highly educated young employees
in the private and public sectors. The specific results of this study will provide insight for the
organizations employing such individuals.

The leadership of Knowledge in Organization: The Media Needs of the Audience with Emphasis on Habermas Public Sphere Theory in Media Organizations

Ali Asadnezhad; Nahid Kordi; Ali Jafari

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 103-114
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60520

This study examines Habermas's public Sphere theory in relation to the leadership of knowledge in organizations based on the audience's media needs and prioritizes them. In this study, after conducting library studies and compiling a comprehensive and complete theoretical literature and research background, a questionnaire was designed and distributed among the respondents in line with related research theories and research questions and hypotheses. The data collection method is a survey type. The statistical population of the research consists of cyberspace users. The sample size was determined based on Cochran's formula, and 384 participants were selected using a purposive non-random sampling method. The results showed that the most important effects were Internet access, logical and rational critique of political, economic, social, and cultural issues, two-way and free discussion with government officials on social networks. The results also showed that knowledge leadership has an essential role in promoting organizational knowledge, organizational culture, and knowledge management.  The knowledge management in the organization is done through social networks.

The Effect of strategic leadership and empowerment on job satisfaction of the employees of Guilan University

Mostafa Ebrahimpour Azbari; Mohsen Akbari; Milad Hooshmand Chaijani

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2015, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 453-464
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60230

The methods for the management and leadership of educational and research organizations has always been a question of some researchers. With the emergence of the strategic management in educational organizations, different views were raised about the management of these institutions whether it is possible to apply issues related to the business and educational administration field. They both agree on the difference between educational environment and business environment. This difference leads to different research areas which one of them is the managers’ educational leadership style. Regarding to the educational research centers’ management, strategic leadership is one of leadership styles. This paper examined the effect of this leadership style on empowerment and job satisfaction of employees of Guilan University. The statistical population of the study consisted of 235 employees of Guilan University. Smart PLS software and Structural Equation Modeling were used for data analysis. The results showed that the style of strategic leadership and employee empowerment had a significant positive effect on job satisfaction.

The relationship between glass ceiling and power distance as a cultural variable by a new method

Naide Jahangirov; Guler Saglam Ari; Seymur Jahangirov; Nuray Guneri Tosunoglu

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2015, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 465-483
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60300

Glass ceiling symbolizes a variety of barriers and obstacles that arise from gender inequality at business life. With this mind, culture influences gender dynamics. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between the glass ceiling and the power distance as a cultural variable within organizations. Gender variable is taken as a moderator variable in relationship between the concepts. In addition to conventional correlation analysis, we employed a new method to investigate this relationship in detail. The survey data were obtained from 109 people working at a research center which operated as a part of the non-profit private university in Ankara, Turkey. The relationship between the variables was revealed by a new method which was developed as an addition to the correlation in survey.  The analysis revealed that the female staff perceived the glass ceiling and the power distance more intensely than the male staff. In addition, the medium level relation was determined between the power distance and the glass ceiling perception among female staff.

An investigation into the relationship between the organizational intelligence and the performance of Melli and Mehr Eghtesad banks managers in Ardabil

Fatemeh Bagheri Toolarood; Shahram Mirzaei Daryani

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2015, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 374-391
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60345

The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the organizational intelligence and the performance of Melli and Mehr Eghtesad banks managers in Ardabil. In the present study cross-correlation method was used. The population consisted of all managers and assistants of Melli and Mehr Eghtesad banks in Ardabil which were about 132 people. The main tools of data collection were a standardized questionnaire that assigned for organization intelligence and a researcher-made questionnaire measured the relationship between two variables. To test the hypothesis, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Spearman’s Correlation coefficient, and Mann-Whitney U Test Statistics were used. The findings revealed that there was a significant relationship between the organizational intelligence variables and the performance of banks managers and there was no significant difference between the organizational intelligence of Melli and Mehr Eghtesad banks managers.

Examination of the Effects of Emotional Intelligence and Authentic Leadership on the Employees in the Organizations

Zafer Adigüzel; Eda Kuloglu

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2019, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 13-30
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2019.60412

In the highly competitive environment of the business world, organizations implement human resource policies and practices to increase the motivation and performance of employees. Efforts to keep employee turnover at minimum levels are directly proportional to employee satisfaction and their willingness to stay in the organization. Employees’ dissatisfaction, leaders’ attitudes and behaviours, human resources policies determine the life of the organizations. The increase in the employment turnover rate can decrease the performance of the organization, bring additional costs and cause employee trainings to be ineffective. In particular, the qualified employees can easily leave the organization if they do not like the management approach leads to the formation of different management understandings and perspectives. The leadership style of the managers and the human resources policies can shape the future of the organizations.  Therefore, it is important to conduct studies in this field to help the senior managers to make decisions and demonstrate their leadership roles. The sample of this study consists of 498 white-collar employees working in the private and public sector. The findings were subjected to factor and reliability analyses by using IBM SPSS 23 program. The hypotheses were tested by regression analysis and the results were evaluated and presented accordingly.

THE IMPORTANCE OF ADVERTISING SLOGANS AND THEIR PROPER DESIGNING IN BRAND EQUITY

Somayeh Abdi; Abdollah Irandoust

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 62-69
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2013.60321

The term slogan derives from Slough-ghairm, pronounced as Slogorm from Scottish Gaelic which means battle cry. Slogan is usually an unforgettable phrase that is frequently used to express an idea or purpose. Slogans have been employed in religious and political areas since long time ago, but today they are mostly used in business and trading.
They vary from other ordinary text and images, and often because of their simple structure cannot convey a lot of concepts and details. Hereupon, slogans instead of drawing specific audience, address general audience to convey their particular meanings. Brand owners pay lots of money to advertising agencies to come up with snappy advertising slogans. Advertising slogans often claim to have knowledge of something and attempt to show it.
Slogans usually serve a substantial role in calling audience’s attention to one or more aspects of a product or service. Normally slogans claim that the advertised product or service is of the highest quality, or is the most delicious, the most inexpensive, or nutritious… one. The slogans should point out, at least, the most important advantage of a product, or respond to the audience’s needs, or offer more benefits for their future/probable customers.

Leadership 4.0: Digital Leaders in the Age of Industry 4.0

Birgit Oberer; Alptekin Erkollar

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2018, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 404-412
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60332

Industry 4.0 stands for ‘fourth industrial revolution and is a term referring to rapid transformations in the design, production, implementation, operation, and service of manufacturing systems, products, and components. To get the most out of Industry 4.0 technologies, organizations will have to heavily invest in building capabilities in the following dimensions: data and connectivity, analytics and intelligence, conversion to the physical world, and human-machine interaction. In this study, the human dimension of industry 4.0 has priority, by analyzing behavioral leadership theories that focus on the study of the specific behaviors of a leader (the leader behavior is the predictor of his leadership influences and is the best determinant of his leadership success). A two dimensional 4.0 leadership style matrix was developed (x-axis: innovation/technology concern; y-axis: people concern). The results of this study revealed that the developed industry 4.0 leadership style might have the dimensions of first-year students, social, technological or digital, where the 4.0 digital leader forms the highest reachable level in the 4.0 leadership matrix.

Leadership Competency Model-Drenica: Generalizability of Leadership Competencies

Fadil Çitaku; Hetem Ramadani

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2020, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 152-162
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60502

This paper aims to summarize the generalizability of leadership competencies published in field of leadership. This present study used the Leadership Competencies Model of Çitaku et al. (2012), which has investigated six most developed western countries (Austria (A), Germany (D), Switzerland (CH), United States of America (USA), Canada (CA) and United Kingdom (UK)) to find out leadership competencies for efficient leaders. We randomly selected 25 leadership competencies using the Research Randomizer tool and systematically researched on Google Scholar, how many times occur leadership competencies, published between the 2010 and 2020. The analysis of the related literature was conducted by employing a bibliometric analysis of the research on the Google Scholar database between 2010 and 2020. The results of present study showed that there is an outstanding interest in our randomly chosen leadership competences and that these 25 competencies can be applied in any leadership domain. The study brought out 25 important leadership competencies incorporated in seven important domains, resulting with leadership competencies model named DRENICA, which is scientifically robust and can be used in leadership training courses and programs, in all leadership domains. The study concluded that 25 randomly chosen leadership competencies are robust, generalized and can be used in any leadership domain. Future research should be designed to replicate, extend and confirm the present findings. Meanwhile, we have provided a “Leadership Competency Model-Drenica” that can be employed to teach and further investigate leadership competences.

Leadership of Xi Jinping behind Unstoppable Sustainable Economic Growth of China

Bablu Kumar Dhar; Mahazan Mutalib

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2020, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 39-47
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60489

Xi Jinping's new era of socialist economic thought, rooted in the great practice of China's economic construction, systematically explains the issue of China's economic development and reform, and clearly answers the important questions of how the economic situation is to be judged, how to judge the development stage, how to determine the development goals, and how to do economic work. Xi Jinping's new era of the socialist economy with Chinese characteristics, system integrity, broad depth, logic and strict, each aspect of the discourse has a creative and vital point of view, forward-looking strategic deployment and "four beams and eight pillars" of the key initiatives. Combining the in-depth study of Xi Jinping's new era socialist ideology with Chinese characteristics and the spirit of the Party's 19th National Congress, this paper tries to sort out Xi Jinping's new era socialist economic thought with Chinese characteristics from five aspects, such as direction theory, goal theory, epistemology, strategy theory, and bottom-line theory.

Examination of the Effects of Emotional Intelligence and Authentic Leadership on the Employees in the Organizations

Zafer Adigüzel; Eda Kuloglu

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2019, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 13-30
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2019.60412

In the highly competitive environment of the business world, organizations implement human resource policies and practices to increase the motivation and performance of employees. Efforts to keep employee turnover at minimum levels are directly proportional to employee satisfaction and their willingness to stay in the organization. Employees’ dissatisfaction, leaders’ attitudes and behaviours, human resources policies determine the life of the organizations. The increase in the employment turnover rate can decrease the performance of the organization, bring additional costs and cause employee trainings to be ineffective. In particular, the qualified employees can easily leave the organization if they do not like the management approach leads to the formation of different management understandings and perspectives. The leadership style of the managers and the human resources policies can shape the future of the organizations.  Therefore, it is important to conduct studies in this field to help the senior managers to make decisions and demonstrate their leadership roles. The sample of this study consists of 498 white-collar employees working in the private and public sector. The findings were subjected to factor and reliability analyses by using IBM SPSS 23 program. The hypotheses were tested by regression analysis and the results were evaluated and presented accordingly.

Performance appraisal bias and errors: The influences and consequences

Mahmoud Javidmehr; Mehrdad Ebrahimpour

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2015, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 286-302
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60464

Individual performance evaluation (PE) provides a link between individual performance and organizational performance. PE is of considerable importance in human resource management (HRM). Lack of evaluation in various organizational dimensions, such as evaluation of resources and facilities, employees, and organizational goals and strategies is considered a serious disadvantage of organizations. Moreover, lack of evaluation in a system is regarded as lack of communication with internal and external environments which leads to organizational senility and, ultimately, death. In this paper a meta-analysis is used to review literature from various sources available on performance appraisal and influences of bias and errors in evaluation in Sabzevar. The results showed that PE system can result in improvement of the performance of both employees and organizations. Decrease in errors and bias can bring about employee performance improvement as well as an increase in satisfaction with and efficiency
of evaluation system.

The impact of organizational culture on organizational performance: The mediating role of employee’s organizational commitment

Amin Nikpour

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2017, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 65-72
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2017.60432

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mediating role of employee’s organizational commitment on the relationship between organizational culture and organizational performance. This study was descriptive and correlational research that was conducted through the survey method. The study population consisted of all employees in education office of Kerman province and 190 persons were selected as volume of sample by using Cochran’s formula. The data gathering tools were organizational culture, organizational commitment, and organizational performance questionnaires. Descriptive and inferential statistics (structural equation modeling through path analysis) were used to analyze the data. The data was analyzed using SPSS and AMOS softwares. The findings of the research indicated that suggested model had appropriate fit and organizational culture beyond its direct impact exerted indirect impact on organizational performance through the mediation of employee’s organizational commitment that the extent of indirect impact was significantly higher than direct impact. 

Leadership 4.0: Digital Leaders in the Age of Industry 4.0

Birgit Oberer; Alptekin Erkollar

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2018, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 404-412
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60332

Industry 4.0 stands for ‘fourth industrial revolution and is a term referring to rapid transformations in the design, production, implementation, operation, and service of manufacturing systems, products, and components. To get the most out of Industry 4.0 technologies, organizations will have to heavily invest in building capabilities in the following dimensions: data and connectivity, analytics and intelligence, conversion to the physical world, and human-machine interaction. In this study, the human dimension of industry 4.0 has priority, by analyzing behavioral leadership theories that focus on the study of the specific behaviors of a leader (the leader behavior is the predictor of his leadership influences and is the best determinant of his leadership success). A two dimensional 4.0 leadership style matrix was developed (x-axis: innovation/technology concern; y-axis: people concern). The results of this study revealed that the developed industry 4.0 leadership style might have the dimensions of first-year students, social, technological or digital, where the 4.0 digital leader forms the highest reachable level in the 4.0 leadership matrix.

Effect of Family Influence, Personal Interest and Economic Considerations on Career Choice amongst Undergraduate Students in Higher Educational Institutions of Vehari, Pakistan

Asad Afzal Humayon; Shoaib Raza; Rao Aamir Khan; Noor ul ain Ansari

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2018, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 129-142
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60333

This study examined the effect of family influence, personal interest, and economic considerations in career choice amongst undergraduate students. The present study used quantitative research design. Target population was undergraduate students of higher educational institutions in Vehari, Pakistan. Cross-sectional data was used in this study. For data collection simple random sampling technique was used. The data was collected through structured questionnaire. The descriptive, demographic, reliability, correlation, and multiple regression analyses were applied to find answer to research questions. The results of regression analysis showed that the family influence, personal interest and economic considerations exercised big influence on the career choice of students. The Limitations of the study, suggestion for the future study, theoretical and practical implications were also discussed in this study.

Exploring the Effect of Leader Member Exchange (LMX) Level on Employees Psychological Contract Perceptions

Atilhan Naktiyok; Mehmet Emirhan Kula

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2018, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 120-128
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60335

Leader member exchange (LMX) theory emphasizes that leaders establish different associations with each one of their followers through a system of exchanges and a psychological contract is an employees beliefs regarding the mutual obligations between the employee and an employer. Within this study the impact of subordinates’ leader member exchange level on perceived psychological contract violation has been identified at first and it has been found that subordinates’ leader member exchange level negatively effect on perceived psychological contract violation. Also it is seen when the demographic variables are taken into account that there are significant relations between education level, type of employment and age categories.

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