About Journal

International Journal of Organizational Leadership is devoted to theoretical and empirical research concerning organizational behaviour, organizational psychology, and managers' leadership tactics and consequences.  Topics covered by the journal include perception, cognition, judgment, attitudes, emotion, well-being, motivation, choice, and performance. Its specific purposes are to foster an improved understanding of how people in an organization are led and how business conduct can affect leadership. This journal brings together a focus on leadership for scholars,...
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Real-Time Data Analysis (RTDA) and Proposed Innovative Business Models: A Conceptual Study of the Tourism Industry

Erdem Aktaş; Avşar Kurgun; Emir Ozeren; Berk Kucukaltan

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue Special Issue 2022, Pages 4-20
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60336

The paper discusses the importance of Real-Time Data Analysis (RTDA) with innovative fluid business models for the tourism industry. The study uses a conceptual approach to identify innovative fluid tourism business models and their relationships with RTDA based on the problematisation of the crucial need for a holistic, macro understanding of the tourism ecosystem approach rather than framing the issue from a micro point of view. The paper highlights that the current digital era makes it no longer possible for the tourism ecosystem stakeholders to use static models that collect, store, analyse data and make decisions accordingly. Innovative business models should be fluid structural models that use instant data and provide continuous, multiple, and variable decisions with RTDA. The real-time analysis of macro (e.g., countries), meso (e.g., destinations), and micro (e.g., tourists) data obtained from the tourism ecosystem is vital for innovative business models which facilitate the offerings of individualised services and provide increased cooperation between stakeholders using open innovation opportunities in the ecosystem. To date, the tourism industry has not adequately grasped the outcomes and benefits of big data analytics (BDA). While a growing body of literature on big data has focused extensively on technical aspects (e.g., infrastructure, intelligence, and analytical tools), the issue of how and under what conditions BDA can generate value and impacts for various stakeholders involved in the tourism ecosystem remains largely underexplored. Thus, this paper fills this void by being among the first attempts to conceptually explain and propose unique, innovative fluid business models and RTDA in three specific areas in the tourism and hospitality context.

Digital Leadership on Twitter: The Digital Leadership Roles of Sports Journalists on Twitter

Emre Vadi Balci; Salih Tiryaki; Yavuz Demir; Enes Baloğlu

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue Special Issue 2022, Pages 21-35
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60337

This study aims to demonstrate the digital leadership roles of Turkish sports journalists on Twitter individually and institutionally. During the Post Covid-19 pandemic process, journalists from institutional newspapers gained more active visibility, particularly on Twitter. Unlike traditional leadership roles, digital leadership is measured more within the context of interconnected relationships with followers and interactions on Twitter. Along with engaging followers on Twitter and attempting to address their interests and needs, sports journalists also compile their institutional and personal opinions and post them on Twitter. For this reason, in the present study, we analyzed the Twitter accounts of five well-known sports journalists actively engaged in Turkey and their institutional newspapers for one month. Then, we compared their followers, interactions, and contents. Accordingly, although online posts of sports journalists were less (n = 922) than the institutions they were employed in, they contrarily received more online interaction (e.g., retweet, mention, like). While 51.82% of Twitter posts shared by sports journalists reflected their own opinions and comments, the remaining 48.18% were typically in the form of mentions and retweets. The interactions of the sports journalists with their followers, at a rate of 28.83% in particular, were a significant rate for satisfying their followers' informational, enquiring, and practical needs. Indeed, such an attempt plays a critical role in the adoption of digital leadership roles by the followers of sports journalists. Contrary to traditional leadership roles, the number of followers and interaction rate were the main factors to signify digital leadership; however, aspects such as institution, age, and economic and social statuses were insignificant in the adoption of sports journalists as digital leaders on Twitter.

Exploring the Transformation of Opinion Leaders from a Traditional to a Digital Mindset

Emre Vadi Balci; Salih Tiryaki; Melis Karakuş

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue Special Issue 2022, Pages 36-50
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60338

The advancements in the field of communication concurrently transpire throughout the evolution of the Internet and its accompanying tools. A free communication opportunity over the internet platform has resulted in the involvement of a sizable people mass in this digital environment. Individuals also pose variations in communication styles since Web 2.0 technology promotes interpersonal connection and communication. Such variations have resulted in modification and deformation in the Two-Stage Flow Theory, which is among the traditional communication models. According to the conventional definition, opinion leaders have the force to potentially influence society with their respective approaches and responses to various events and cases. They have revived alongside the changing media contexts. The transition in these platforms proceeds beyond the change in technology since they facilitate a significant portion of social change. Nowadays, opinion leaders appeal to eventuate social change since they have the potential to convey to a sizable mass of internet users. The vast majority of internet users are influenced by the attitudes and accessions of new opinion leaders while making decisions on their social life, political issues, products, and personal investments. On the one hand, people, groups, companies, and political structures that are aware of the indulgent aspects of the opinion leaders try to persuade them; on the other hand, these entities seek to generate their opinion leaders and forge a follower mass for them. The purpose of the study was to assess the concept of an opinion leader introduced by the Two-Stage Flow Theory and the new context in which it has emerged in light of the elaboration of modern communication technology. The study findings revealed that the Internet and its accompanying tools differed the recent opinion leaders from traditional ones; however, the most critical pillar of this differentiation was digital domains where opinion leaders appeal to large masses composed of different layers.

The Importance of Leadership in the Time of Covid-19: The Example of Turkish Health Minister Fahrettin Koca’s Youtube Shares

Ümmügülsüm Korkmaz Buluş; Metin Işık; Muzaffer Musab Yılmaz; Berkay Buluş

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue Special Issue 2022, Pages 51-63
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60339

Leadership is an important parameter in the healthcare field. The need for a leader with digital skills in the context of social transformation and digitalization has become more important, especially during the Covid-19 pandemic. This study discusses the leadership of the Minister of Health of the Republic of Turkey, Fahrettin Koca, in the context of digital environments during the pandemic. The reason for choosing Minister Koca as the leader is that he undertook the responsibilities of informing, persuading, and guiding citizens about the Covid-19 Pandemic. Koca has impressed the citizens of the Republic of Turkey with the shares he made from digital media at regular intervals with his rhetoric, knowledge, and vision. The aim of the study is to reveal how transformational leadership in the field of health is applied in digital environments after the Covid-19 in Turkey. Press meetings held by Minister Koca were evaluated based on transformational leadership categories to raise public awareness in the digital environment. In this qualitative research, the data were obtained from the official Youtube account of Minister of Health Koca. The data were evaluated by content analysis method using the MAXQDA program. The phenomenon of digital leadership after Covid-19 was discussed through digital transformation and leadership theories. As a result of the study, it was seen that Health Minister Koca have transformational leadership capability at both individual and organizational level.

Examining the Relationship between Aspects of Human Capital Management and Employee Job Performance: Mediating Role of Employee Engagement and Moderating Role of Perceived Organizational Support

Abel Gebremedhn Desta; Work Mekonnen Tadesse; Wubshet Bekalu Mulusew

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue Special Issue 2022, Pages 64-86
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60340

This paper examined the effect of the selected aspects of human capital management on employee job performance and the mediating role of employee engagement. Likewise, this study tested the moderation role of perceived organizational support on the HCM-employee performance link. The research sample is the responses of 426 participants from twelve banking organizations operating in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, utilizing the social exchange theory and the theory of the resource-based view. This paper is structured quantitatively, with stratified and simple random sampling techniques. The research model analysis method applies structural equation modeling with AMOS to test the hypothesized relationships.  The results showed that the Human Capital Management (HCM) practices, namely knowledge accessibility, learning capacity, workforce optimization, leadership practice, and career advancement, positively related to employee job performance. Moreover, the bias-corrected bootstrapping iteration revealed that employee engagement partially mediates this relationship between aspects of human capital management and employee job performance. The findings also show that perceived organizational support positively moderates the association between knowledge accessibility, learning capacity, leadership practice, career advancement, and employee job performance. Conversely, it has an insignificant moderation effect on the association between workforce optimization and employee job performance. Finally, the limitations and future research implications are discussed.

Examination of the Effects of Emotional Intelligence and Authentic Leadership on the Employees in the Organizations

Zafer Adigüzel; Eda Kuloglu

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2019, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 13-30
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2019.60412

In the highly competitive environment of the business world, organizations implement human resource policies and practices to increase the motivation and performance of employees. Efforts to keep employee turnover at minimum levels are directly proportional to employee satisfaction and their willingness to stay in the organization. Employees’ dissatisfaction, leaders’ attitudes and behaviours, human resources policies determine the life of the organizations. The increase in the employment turnover rate can decrease the performance of the organization, bring additional costs and cause employee trainings to be ineffective. In particular, the qualified employees can easily leave the organization if they do not like the management approach leads to the formation of different management understandings and perspectives. The leadership style of the managers and the human resources policies can shape the future of the organizations.  Therefore, it is important to conduct studies in this field to help the senior managers to make decisions and demonstrate their leadership roles. The sample of this study consists of 498 white-collar employees working in the private and public sector. The findings were subjected to factor and reliability analyses by using IBM SPSS 23 program. The hypotheses were tested by regression analysis and the results were evaluated and presented accordingly.

An investigation into the relationship between the organizational intelligence and the performance of Melli and Mehr Eghtesad banks managers in Ardabil

Fatemeh Bagheri Toolarood; Shahram Mirzaei Daryani

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2015, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 374-391
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60345

The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the organizational intelligence and the performance of Melli and Mehr Eghtesad banks managers in Ardabil. In the present study cross-correlation method was used. The population consisted of all managers and assistants of Melli and Mehr Eghtesad banks in Ardabil which were about 132 people. The main tools of data collection were a standardized questionnaire that assigned for organization intelligence and a researcher-made questionnaire measured the relationship between two variables. To test the hypothesis, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Spearman’s Correlation coefficient, and Mann-Whitney U Test Statistics were used. The findings revealed that there was a significant relationship between the organizational intelligence variables and the performance of banks managers and there was no significant difference between the organizational intelligence of Melli and Mehr Eghtesad banks managers.

The relationship between glass ceiling and power distance as a cultural variable by a new method

Naide Jahangirov; Guler Saglam Ari; Seymur Jahangirov; Nuray Guneri Tosunoglu

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2015, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 465-483
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60300

Glass ceiling symbolizes a variety of barriers and obstacles that arise from gender inequality at business life. With this mind, culture influences gender dynamics. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between the glass ceiling and the power distance as a cultural variable within organizations. Gender variable is taken as a moderator variable in relationship between the concepts. In addition to conventional correlation analysis, we employed a new method to investigate this relationship in detail. The survey data were obtained from 109 people working at a research center which operated as a part of the non-profit private university in Ankara, Turkey. The relationship between the variables was revealed by a new method which was developed as an addition to the correlation in survey.  The analysis revealed that the female staff perceived the glass ceiling and the power distance more intensely than the male staff. In addition, the medium level relation was determined between the power distance and the glass ceiling perception among female staff.

The Effect of strategic leadership and empowerment on job satisfaction of the employees of Guilan University

Mostafa Ebrahimpour Azbari; Mohsen Akbari; Milad Hooshmand Chaijani

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2015, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 453-464
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60230

The methods for the management and leadership of educational and research organizations has always been a question of some researchers. With the emergence of the strategic management in educational organizations, different views were raised about the management of these institutions whether it is possible to apply issues related to the business and educational administration field. They both agree on the difference between educational environment and business environment. This difference leads to different research areas which one of them is the managers’ educational leadership style. Regarding to the educational research centers’ management, strategic leadership is one of leadership styles. This paper examined the effect of this leadership style on empowerment and job satisfaction of employees of Guilan University. The statistical population of the study consisted of 235 employees of Guilan University. Smart PLS software and Structural Equation Modeling were used for data analysis. The results showed that the style of strategic leadership and employee empowerment had a significant positive effect on job satisfaction.

How Cultural Differences Influence Conflict Within an Organization: A Case Study of Near East University

Ayşe Gözde Koyuncu; Rufaro Denise Chipindu

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2019, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 112-128
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60478

The culture that people come from has played an important part in shaping any society. Culture is of vital importance since it assists in the way people live and articulating the manner in which information among people is administered. Miscommunication often arises due to the differences in cultures that exist that leads to people misunderstanding of other cultural contexts. Individuals from certain cultures may deal with conflict easily while others tend to find it difficult in dealing with it amenably. This leads to the system of sweeping it under the carpet (De Drue, Blom, & Hagendoom, 2007). Conflict is triggered when there are cultural differences between individuals within an organization or through general interaction with one another. This often leads to cross-cultural conflict which generally occurs in the context that individuals are not willing to understand each other’s diversity in cultures. This study examines cultural differences that influence conflict within an organization. Quota Sampling was used as sampling technique. Data was grouped according to ethnicities. The study is qualitative in nature and made use of semi-structured interviews which were carried out with fifty participants from three ethnic groups. Data was analyzed using Qualitative Content analysis. Findings suggested ways that management could reduce conflict by creating an environment where all cultures interact with one another freely.

THE IMPORTANCE OF ADVERTISING SLOGANS AND THEIR PROPER DESIGNING IN BRAND EQUITY

Somayeh Abdi; Abdollah Irandoust

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 62-69
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2013.60321

The term slogan derives from Slough-ghairm, pronounced as Slogorm from Scottish Gaelic which means battle cry. Slogan is usually an unforgettable phrase that is frequently used to express an idea or purpose. Slogans have been employed in religious and political areas since long time ago, but today they are mostly used in business and trading.
They vary from other ordinary text and images, and often because of their simple structure cannot convey a lot of concepts and details. Hereupon, slogans instead of drawing specific audience, address general audience to convey their particular meanings. Brand owners pay lots of money to advertising agencies to come up with snappy advertising slogans. Advertising slogans often claim to have knowledge of something and attempt to show it.
Slogans usually serve a substantial role in calling audience’s attention to one or more aspects of a product or service. Normally slogans claim that the advertised product or service is of the highest quality, or is the most delicious, the most inexpensive, or nutritious… one. The slogans should point out, at least, the most important advantage of a product, or respond to the audience’s needs, or offer more benefits for their future/probable customers.

Leadership 4.0: Digital Leaders in the Age of Industry 4.0

Birgit Oberer; Alptekin Erkollar

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2018, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 404-412
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60332

Industry 4.0 stands for ‘fourth industrial revolution and is a term referring to rapid transformations in the design, production, implementation, operation, and service of manufacturing systems, products, and components. To get the most out of Industry 4.0 technologies, organizations will have to heavily invest in building capabilities in the following dimensions: data and connectivity, analytics and intelligence, conversion to the physical world, and human-machine interaction. In this study, the human dimension of industry 4.0 has priority, by analyzing behavioral leadership theories that focus on the study of the specific behaviors of a leader (the leader behavior is the predictor of his leadership influences and is the best determinant of his leadership success). A two dimensional 4.0 leadership style matrix was developed (x-axis: innovation/technology concern; y-axis: people concern). The results of this study revealed that the developed industry 4.0 leadership style might have the dimensions of first-year students, social, technological or digital, where the 4.0 digital leader forms the highest reachable level in the 4.0 leadership matrix.

Leadership Competency Model-Drenica: Generalizability of Leadership Competencies

Fadil Çitaku; Hetem Ramadani

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2020, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 156-162
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60502

This paper aims to summarize the generalizability of leadership competencies published in field of leadership. This present study used the Leadership Competencies Model of Çitaku et al. (2012), which has investigated six most developed western countries (Austria (A), Germany (D), Switzerland (CH), United States of America (USA), Canada (CA) and United Kingdom (UK)) to find out leadership competencies for efficient leaders. We randomly selected 25 leadership competencies using the Research Randomizer tool and systematically researched on Google Scholar, how many times occur leadership competencies, published between the 2010 and 2020. The analysis of the related literature was conducted by employing a bibliometric analysis of the research on the Google Scholar database between 2010 and 2020. The results of present study showed that there is an outstanding interest in our randomly chosen leadership competences and that these 25 competencies can be applied in any leadership domain. The study brought out 25 important leadership competencies incorporated in seven important domains, resulting with leadership competencies model named DRENICA, which is scientifically robust and can be used in leadership training courses and programs, in all leadership domains. The study concluded that 25 randomly chosen leadership competencies are robust, generalized and can be used in any leadership domain. Future research should be designed to replicate, extend and confirm the present findings. Meanwhile, we have provided a “Leadership Competency Model-Drenica” that can be employed to teach and further investigate leadership competences.

Effects of Fatherhood on Leadership Behaviour of Managers

Bernhard Stellner

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 367-384
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60598

Becoming a father is a major life event for men and is accompanied by new role expectations and behavioural changes. While earlier research focused on the conflictual facets, more recent work-family enrichment theory emphasises the positive aspects of multiple roles. Previous quantitative and qualitative research has found that parenthood positively influences overall leadership and management behaviour at work. Our quantitative study uses a more granular definition of leadership behaviour with data from 157 male managers from Central Europe collected with a web-based survey. We find that 14 out of 15 transformational leadership behaviours (TLB) improve significantly with fatherhood. The individual behaviours supporting, recognizing, and developing progress the most. Only networking remains unaffected. Parental role enrichment outweighs conflict, and the resulting net effect correlates strongly with TLB. Also, parental role commitment and job level (position and number of subordinates) have a positive effect on TLB improvement. Parental role commitment and net enrichment show strong multicollinearity. Despite the positive effects of fatherhood on TLB in general, these decrease as the number of children increases, contradicting the intuition that "the more, the better". The findings should be considered in both managerial theory and practice as they concern the majority of men in leadership positions.

Performance appraisal bias and errors: The influences and consequences

Mahmoud Javidmehr; Mehrdad Ebrahimpour

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2015, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 286-302
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60464

Individual performance evaluation (PE) provides a link between individual performance and organizational performance. PE is of considerable importance in human resource management (HRM). Lack of evaluation in various organizational dimensions, such as evaluation of resources and facilities, employees, and organizational goals and strategies is considered a serious disadvantage of organizations. Moreover, lack of evaluation in a system is regarded as lack of communication with internal and external environments which leads to organizational senility and, ultimately, death. In this paper a meta-analysis is used to review literature from various sources available on performance appraisal and influences of bias and errors in evaluation in Sabzevar. The results showed that PE system can result in improvement of the performance of both employees and organizations. Decrease in errors and bias can bring about employee performance improvement as well as an increase in satisfaction with and efficiency
of evaluation system.

The impact of organizational culture on organizational performance: The mediating role of employee’s organizational commitment

Amin Nikpour

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2017, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 65-72
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2017.60432

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mediating role of employee’s organizational commitment on the relationship between organizational culture and organizational performance. This study was descriptive and correlational research that was conducted through the survey method. The study population consisted of all employees in education office of Kerman province and 190 persons were selected as volume of sample by using Cochran’s formula. The data gathering tools were organizational culture, organizational commitment, and organizational performance questionnaires. Descriptive and inferential statistics (structural equation modeling through path analysis) were used to analyze the data. The data was analyzed using SPSS and AMOS softwares. The findings of the research indicated that suggested model had appropriate fit and organizational culture beyond its direct impact exerted indirect impact on organizational performance through the mediation of employee’s organizational commitment that the extent of indirect impact was significantly higher than direct impact. 

Leadership 4.0: Digital Leaders in the Age of Industry 4.0

Birgit Oberer; Alptekin Erkollar

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2018, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 404-412
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60332

Industry 4.0 stands for ‘fourth industrial revolution and is a term referring to rapid transformations in the design, production, implementation, operation, and service of manufacturing systems, products, and components. To get the most out of Industry 4.0 technologies, organizations will have to heavily invest in building capabilities in the following dimensions: data and connectivity, analytics and intelligence, conversion to the physical world, and human-machine interaction. In this study, the human dimension of industry 4.0 has priority, by analyzing behavioral leadership theories that focus on the study of the specific behaviors of a leader (the leader behavior is the predictor of his leadership influences and is the best determinant of his leadership success). A two dimensional 4.0 leadership style matrix was developed (x-axis: innovation/technology concern; y-axis: people concern). The results of this study revealed that the developed industry 4.0 leadership style might have the dimensions of first-year students, social, technological or digital, where the 4.0 digital leader forms the highest reachable level in the 4.0 leadership matrix.

Effect of Family Influence, Personal Interest and Economic Considerations on Career Choice amongst Undergraduate Students in Higher Educational Institutions of Vehari, Pakistan

Asad Afzal Humayon; Shoaib Raza; Rao Aamir Khan; Noor ul ain Ansari

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2018, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 129-142
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60333

This study examined the effect of family influence, personal interest, and economic considerations in career choice amongst undergraduate students. The present study used quantitative research design. Target population was undergraduate students of higher educational institutions in Vehari, Pakistan. Cross-sectional data was used in this study. For data collection simple random sampling technique was used. The data was collected through structured questionnaire. The descriptive, demographic, reliability, correlation, and multiple regression analyses were applied to find answer to research questions. The results of regression analysis showed that the family influence, personal interest and economic considerations exercised big influence on the career choice of students. The Limitations of the study, suggestion for the future study, theoretical and practical implications were also discussed in this study.

THE IMPORTANCE OF ADVERTISING SLOGANS AND THEIR PROPER DESIGNING IN BRAND EQUITY

Somayeh Abdi; Abdollah Irandoust

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 62-69
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2013.60321

The term slogan derives from Slough-ghairm, pronounced as Slogorm from Scottish Gaelic which means battle cry. Slogan is usually an unforgettable phrase that is frequently used to express an idea or purpose. Slogans have been employed in religious and political areas since long time ago, but today they are mostly used in business and trading.
They vary from other ordinary text and images, and often because of their simple structure cannot convey a lot of concepts and details. Hereupon, slogans instead of drawing specific audience, address general audience to convey their particular meanings. Brand owners pay lots of money to advertising agencies to come up with snappy advertising slogans. Advertising slogans often claim to have knowledge of something and attempt to show it.
Slogans usually serve a substantial role in calling audience’s attention to one or more aspects of a product or service. Normally slogans claim that the advertised product or service is of the highest quality, or is the most delicious, the most inexpensive, or nutritious… one. The slogans should point out, at least, the most important advantage of a product, or respond to the audience’s needs, or offer more benefits for their future/probable customers.

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