About Journal

International Journal of Organizational Leadership is devoted to theoretical and empirical research concerning organizational behaviour, organizational psychology, and managers' leadership tactics and consequences.  Topics covered by the journal include perception, cognition, judgment, attitudes, emotion, well-being, motivation, choice, and performance. Its specific purposes are to foster an improved understanding of how people in an organization are leaded and how leadership can be affected by business conduct. This journal brings together a focus on leadership...
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Moderating the Relationship between Leadership and Commitment: An Empirical Study on Personality and Values

Thomas Meixner; Richard Pospisil; Pavel Zufan

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue Issue 2, Pages 115-139
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60521

Attracting and retaining talent is considered to be among the most crucial challenges for contemporary leadership. Building on this notion, the present paper aims to foster an understanding of the complex interplay between leadership practices and employee commitment. In these regards, the moderating role of personality variables and personal values is critically assessed. Building on a two-dimensional model of organizational commitment, the study proposes that leadership variables predict both emotional and behavioral commitment, with the relationship being moderated by personality variables as assessed throughout the Big Five framework and by personal values. To determine the validity of these hypotheses, an empirical, quantitative study was conducted following an observational design focusing on the employee perspective. Standardized questionnaires were utilized to assess the levels of commitment, the perceived leadership style of the participants’ leaders, their personality and values. A total of n = 310 individuals were recruited for participation in the empirical study, conducted by using an online survey. The statistical analyses showed a stable, significant correlation between the perception of leadership style and both types of organizational commitment, with leadership communication taking on a noteworthy role. The relevance of personality variables and values also could be confirmed, with their predictive power being more substantial for behavioral commitment. This was established using multiple linear regression analyses that compared the predictive power of the individual predictors.

Analysis of the Links between Burnout Syndrome and Coping Strategies in Trade Managers

Zuzana Birknerová; Barbara Nicole Čigarská

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue Issue 2, Pages 140-154
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60522

Burnout syndrome presents the main problem in the mental and physical state. It is one of the most studied work-related syndromes in recent decades, and it is closely related to energy depletion, exhaustion, chronic stress from work that is not well managed. The matter commonly points to health specialists, but it is necessary not to be indifferent in other professions. Depending on the purpose of the research, the following methodologies were applied. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) comprised of twenty-two issues relating to determinants of Emotional Exhaustion (EE), Depersonalization(DP), and Personal Accomplishment (PA), and the Brief Cope Inventory (COPE) was used to find out what coping strategies trade managers choose in demanding situations. This self-report questionnaire contains the scale that defines an individual’s primary coping styles: Avoidant or Approach Coping. The main goal of the study was an analysis of associations between burnout syndrome determinants and coping strategies in trade managers (N = 270). The data were collected in the Slovak Republic by online questionary, and the representative sample involved top managers (N = 57), middle managers (N = 120), and first-level managers (N = 93). The analysis confirmed the existence of statistically significant links between selected determinants of burnout syndrome and certain coping strategies in terms of demanding situations in trade managers. Based on the outcomes, it can be summed up that managers used Approach coping strategies more often than Avoidance coping strategies

An Evaluation of How Educators in Virtual Teams Perceive Charismatic Leadership During the COVID-19 Crisis

Latifa Attieha; Omar Zouhairy

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue Issue 2, Pages 155-170
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60523

Leadership constituted a topic of high interest for researchers and practitioners alike for years. Numerous studies have focused on leadership styles, particularly charismatic leadership, as an antecedent to organizational achievements. However, most researchers neglected to consider the followers’ perception of their leader’s performance. Understanding and accommodating the needs of the followers is essential to the leader’s success. The current study investigates the influence of charismatic leaders on dispersed teams in non-vocational educational institutions in Lebanon. This quantitative study utilized two structured questionnaires to investigate the charismatic leadership during the COVID-19 crisis from the perspective of educators who work in virtual teams. Five hypotheses on the effect of crisis-bound charismatic leadership on distant educational teams were tested. The relation between the number of years of experience and charisma was not explored since the majority of respondents fell in the category of five years or more at the institution. A total of seventy-seven respondents completed the survey online. Statistical analysis, using the software SPSS-23, showed that neither gender nor level of education affected the followers’ perception of charismatic leadership during crises. Nonetheless, the study findings showed a strong positive correlation between charismatic leadership and the ability to lead in a crisis, concluding that charismatic leaders emerge in times of stress

An Analysis of Teachers’ Attitudes Towards Women School Managers

Ahmet Yildirim; Ahmet Üstün; Mustafa Çelikten

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue Issue 2, Pages 171-182
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60524

There has been a lot of research on gender discrimination in school management and factors that prevent women from becoming managers. Examining the literature showed that attitudes contribute to the reasons for the low number of women managers. This research aims to evaluate teacher attitudes towards women school managers. In the 2018-2019 academic year, the research population was composed of teachers in schools/institutions that are woman managers affiliated to the Ministry of National Education in Amasya provinces and districts. The sample size determined by non-selective sampling management was 157 teachers from the Taşova District of Amasya which. Attitude scale towards woman school managers was applied in the study using the method of descriptive screening. The frequency and percentage values of demographics were examined using the SPSS 17 packet program. An Independent t-test was applied to analyse gender, marital status, educational level variables, and one-way variance analysis for the age variable. More than half of the participants in the study described work experimentation with woman managers positively. As a result of the research, significant differences were observed in gender, education status, and age variables. In contrast, no significant differences were observed in terms of marital status variables.

Influence of Emotional Burnout on Coping Behavior in Pedagogical Activity

Elena Voitenko; Serhii Myronets; Vasyll Osodlo; Kateryna Kushnirenko; Ruslan Kalenychenko

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue Issue 2, Pages 183-196
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60525

Emotional burnout syndrome is seen as a non-constructive mechanism of psychological protection, which worsens the psycho-emotional state and complicates professional and social adaptation. The study aims to identify the presence and nature of the relationship between the development of this syndrome in teachers with the degree of intensity of coping mechanisms. In a study organized by the cross-sectional design, a survey of 107 Ukrainian teachers was conducted. According to the purpose of the study, the following diagnostic techniques were used: Victor Boyko's method of diagnosing the level of emotional burnout, version of the Russian-language adaptation of Ways of Coping Questionnaire. The main hypotheses of this study were tested using correlation analysis and analysis of variance. Correlations between the stages of emotional burnout and the peculiarities of coping behavior have been established. It was found that the development of emotional burnout in teachers is associated with the gradual replacement of constructive coping strategies with non-constructive strategies. Furthermore, teachers' emotional burnout was associated with the gradual replacement of problem-oriented coping strategies with passive maladaptive strategies. Burnout due to the violation of the system of self-regulation and depletion of resources of stress resistance was accompanied by increased strategies of avoidance and emotional distancing from problems and strategies that involved a high degree of hostility and aggression. The obtained results indicated the inexpediency of considering coping strategies as a factor in overcoming emotional burnout. Further research is needed to study the factors and mechanisms for choosing coping strategies, criteria for their effectiveness, and consequences for further development of stress

Attitude Change Process in Group-Level Collaborative Activities: Descriptions of Interaction via a Conversation Analysis Approach

Yuto Kimura

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue Issue 2, Pages 197-213
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60526

In group-level collaboration at work, there is a mutual dynamic in which members are influenced by the attitudes of others while also influencing the attitudes of others. However, it is difficult to depict the phenomenon of group change itself via questionnaires and interviews. Therefore, in this study, we conducted a protocol analysis for voice data from a meeting to examine the attitude change within a group in detail. Protocol data were acquired from educational program development through industry-academia collaboration in Japan, and we analyzed conversation data with the following two aims. The first aim was to quantitatively confirm the basic tendency of the speaker type and the descriptive pattern in the work scene classified with a classified descriptive form code. The second aim was to describe the attitude changes of group members via interpretive analysis of group-level utterance cases using descriptive codes. The analysis indicates that an implicit cooperative relationship may have occurred in terms of the speakers’ role and the pattern of speech. Specifically, the results suggest that two members dared to express conflicting attitudes and changed the overall opinion while respecting the opinions of members of other organizations. These are among the results of the quantitative analysis of the utterance structure using descriptive form codes as the basic data for conversation analysis. In practice, these findings could be applied to deliberately control the attitudes of members within an organization.

The Role of Ego Depletion and Autonomy in the Relationship Between Time-pressure and Knowledge-based Behavior

Roksana Binte Rezwan; Yoshi Takahashi; Nu Nu Mai

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue Issue 2, Pages 214-232
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60527

This research explored the mechanisms by which time-pressure may influence different
knowledge-based behavior, e.g., knowledge sharing and knowledge hiding. Based on the strength
model of self-control, we proposed that ego depletion may explain why time-pressure may
decrease knowledge sharing and increase knowledge hiding. Moreover, based on the job demand
control model, we also proposed that job autonomy would weaken the positive association
between time-pressure and ego depletion. To test our hypotheses, we conducted a daily diary study
over ten workdays. We recruited 24 employees from a post-graduate class in a university in
Myanmar to participate in our study and made 153 observations. We found that time-pressure was
associated with increased ego depletion. We also found a positively but marginally significant
association between time-pressure and evasive knowledge hiding and playing dumb knowledge
hiding. A small negative mediation effect of ego depletion was found on the relationship between
time-pressure and knowledge sharing. Moreover, we found a significant moderation effect of job
autonomy on the relationship between time-pressure and ego depletion. This study contributes to
extant research by exploring for the first time the underlying mechanisms by which time-pressure
influences knowledge sharing and clarifying the mixed results found in previous studies of the
relationship between time-pressure and knowledge hiding







The Effect of strategic leadership and empowerment on job satisfaction of the employees of Guilan University

Mostafa Ebrahimpour Azbari; Mohsen Akbari; Milad Hooshmand Chaijani

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2015, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 453-464
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60230

The methods for the management and leadership of educational and research organizations has always been a question of some researchers. With the emergence of the strategic management in educational organizations, different views were raised about the management of these institutions whether it is possible to apply issues related to the business and educational administration field. They both agree on the difference between educational environment and business environment. This difference leads to different research areas which one of them is the managers’ educational leadership style. Regarding to the educational research centers’ management, strategic leadership is one of leadership styles. This paper examined the effect of this leadership style on empowerment and job satisfaction of employees of Guilan University. The statistical population of the study consisted of 235 employees of Guilan University. Smart PLS software and Structural Equation Modeling were used for data analysis. The results showed that the style of strategic leadership and employee empowerment had a significant positive effect on job satisfaction.

The relationship between glass ceiling and power distance as a cultural variable by a new method

Naide Jahangirov; Guler Saglam Ari; Seymur Jahangirov; Nuray Guneri Tosunoglu

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2015, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 465-483
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60300

Glass ceiling symbolizes a variety of barriers and obstacles that arise from gender inequality at business life. With this mind, culture influences gender dynamics. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between the glass ceiling and the power distance as a cultural variable within organizations. Gender variable is taken as a moderator variable in relationship between the concepts. In addition to conventional correlation analysis, we employed a new method to investigate this relationship in detail. The survey data were obtained from 109 people working at a research center which operated as a part of the non-profit private university in Ankara, Turkey. The relationship between the variables was revealed by a new method which was developed as an addition to the correlation in survey.  The analysis revealed that the female staff perceived the glass ceiling and the power distance more intensely than the male staff. In addition, the medium level relation was determined between the power distance and the glass ceiling perception among female staff.

An investigation into the relationship between the organizational intelligence and the performance of Melli and Mehr Eghtesad banks managers in Ardabil

Fatemeh Bagheri Toolarood; Shahram Mirzaei Daryani

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2015, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 374-391
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60345

The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the organizational intelligence and the performance of Melli and Mehr Eghtesad banks managers in Ardabil. In the present study cross-correlation method was used. The population consisted of all managers and assistants of Melli and Mehr Eghtesad banks in Ardabil which were about 132 people. The main tools of data collection were a standardized questionnaire that assigned for organization intelligence and a researcher-made questionnaire measured the relationship between two variables. To test the hypothesis, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Spearman’s Correlation coefficient, and Mann-Whitney U Test Statistics were used. The findings revealed that there was a significant relationship between the organizational intelligence variables and the performance of banks managers and there was no significant difference between the organizational intelligence of Melli and Mehr Eghtesad banks managers.

Examination of the Effects of Emotional Intelligence and Authentic Leadership on the Employees in the Organizations

Zafer Adigüzel; Eda Kuloglu

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2019, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 13-30
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2019.60412

In the highly competitive environment of the business world, organizations implement human resource policies and practices to increase the motivation and performance of employees. Efforts to keep employee turnover at minimum levels are directly proportional to employee satisfaction and their willingness to stay in the organization. Employees’ dissatisfaction, leaders’ attitudes and behaviours, human resources policies determine the life of the organizations. The increase in the employment turnover rate can decrease the performance of the organization, bring additional costs and cause employee trainings to be ineffective. In particular, the qualified employees can easily leave the organization if they do not like the management approach leads to the formation of different management understandings and perspectives. The leadership style of the managers and the human resources policies can shape the future of the organizations.  Therefore, it is important to conduct studies in this field to help the senior managers to make decisions and demonstrate their leadership roles. The sample of this study consists of 498 white-collar employees working in the private and public sector. The findings were subjected to factor and reliability analyses by using IBM SPSS 23 program. The hypotheses were tested by regression analysis and the results were evaluated and presented accordingly.

THE IMPORTANCE OF ADVERTISING SLOGANS AND THEIR PROPER DESIGNING IN BRAND EQUITY

Somayeh Abdi; Abdollah Irandoust

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 62-69
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2013.60321

The term slogan derives from Slough-ghairm, pronounced as Slogorm from Scottish Gaelic which means battle cry. Slogan is usually an unforgettable phrase that is frequently used to express an idea or purpose. Slogans have been employed in religious and political areas since long time ago, but today they are mostly used in business and trading.
They vary from other ordinary text and images, and often because of their simple structure cannot convey a lot of concepts and details. Hereupon, slogans instead of drawing specific audience, address general audience to convey their particular meanings. Brand owners pay lots of money to advertising agencies to come up with snappy advertising slogans. Advertising slogans often claim to have knowledge of something and attempt to show it.
Slogans usually serve a substantial role in calling audience’s attention to one or more aspects of a product or service. Normally slogans claim that the advertised product or service is of the highest quality, or is the most delicious, the most inexpensive, or nutritious… one. The slogans should point out, at least, the most important advantage of a product, or respond to the audience’s needs, or offer more benefits for their future/probable customers.

Leadership 4.0: Digital Leaders in the Age of Industry 4.0

Birgit Oberer; Alptekin Erkollar

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2018, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 404-412
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60332

Industry 4.0 stands for ‘fourth industrial revolution and is a term referring to rapid transformations in the design, production, implementation, operation, and service of manufacturing systems, products, and components. To get the most out of Industry 4.0 technologies, organizations will have to heavily invest in building capabilities in the following dimensions: data and connectivity, analytics and intelligence, conversion to the physical world, and human-machine interaction. In this study, the human dimension of industry 4.0 has priority, by analyzing behavioral leadership theories that focus on the study of the specific behaviors of a leader (the leader behavior is the predictor of his leadership influences and is the best determinant of his leadership success). A two dimensional 4.0 leadership style matrix was developed (x-axis: innovation/technology concern; y-axis: people concern). The results of this study revealed that the developed industry 4.0 leadership style might have the dimensions of first-year students, social, technological or digital, where the 4.0 digital leader forms the highest reachable level in the 4.0 leadership matrix.

Leadership Competency Model-Drenica: Generalizability of Leadership Competencies

Fadil Çitaku; Hetem Ramadani

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2020, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 152-162
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60502

This paper aims to summarize the generalizability of leadership competencies published in field of leadership. This present study used the Leadership Competencies Model of Çitaku et al. (2012), which has investigated six most developed western countries (Austria (A), Germany (D), Switzerland (CH), United States of America (USA), Canada (CA) and United Kingdom (UK)) to find out leadership competencies for efficient leaders. We randomly selected 25 leadership competencies using the Research Randomizer tool and systematically researched on Google Scholar, how many times occur leadership competencies, published between the 2010 and 2020. The analysis of the related literature was conducted by employing a bibliometric analysis of the research on the Google Scholar database between 2010 and 2020. The results of present study showed that there is an outstanding interest in our randomly chosen leadership competences and that these 25 competencies can be applied in any leadership domain. The study brought out 25 important leadership competencies incorporated in seven important domains, resulting with leadership competencies model named DRENICA, which is scientifically robust and can be used in leadership training courses and programs, in all leadership domains. The study concluded that 25 randomly chosen leadership competencies are robust, generalized and can be used in any leadership domain. Future research should be designed to replicate, extend and confirm the present findings. Meanwhile, we have provided a “Leadership Competency Model-Drenica” that can be employed to teach and further investigate leadership competences.

Leadership of Xi Jinping behind Unstoppable Sustainable Economic Growth of China

Bablu Kumar Dhar; Mahazan Mutalib

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2020, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 39-47
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60489

Xi Jinping's new era of socialist economic thought, rooted in the great practice of China's economic construction, systematically explains the issue of China's economic development and reform, and clearly answers the important questions of how the economic situation is to be judged, how to judge the development stage, how to determine the development goals, and how to do economic work. Xi Jinping's new era of the socialist economy with Chinese characteristics, system integrity, broad depth, logic and strict, each aspect of the discourse has a creative and vital point of view, forward-looking strategic deployment and "four beams and eight pillars" of the key initiatives. Combining the in-depth study of Xi Jinping's new era socialist ideology with Chinese characteristics and the spirit of the Party's 19th National Congress, this paper tries to sort out Xi Jinping's new era socialist economic thought with Chinese characteristics from five aspects, such as direction theory, goal theory, epistemology, strategy theory, and bottom-line theory.

The impact of organizational culture on organizational performance: The mediating role of employee’s organizational commitment

Amin Nikpour

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2017, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 65-72
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2017.60432

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mediating role of employee’s organizational commitment on the relationship between organizational culture and organizational performance. This study was descriptive and correlational research that was conducted through the survey method. The study population consisted of all employees in education office of Kerman province and 190 persons were selected as volume of sample by using Cochran’s formula. The data gathering tools were organizational culture, organizational commitment, and organizational performance questionnaires. Descriptive and inferential statistics (structural equation modeling through path analysis) were used to analyze the data. The data was analyzed using SPSS and AMOS softwares. The findings of the research indicated that suggested model had appropriate fit and organizational culture beyond its direct impact exerted indirect impact on organizational performance through the mediation of employee’s organizational commitment that the extent of indirect impact was significantly higher than direct impact. 

Performance appraisal bias and errors: The influences and consequences

Mahmoud Javidmehr; Mehrdad Ebrahimpour

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2015, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 286-302
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60464

Individual performance evaluation (PE) provides a link between individual performance and organizational performance. PE is of considerable importance in human resource management (HRM). Lack of evaluation in various organizational dimensions, such as evaluation of resources and facilities, employees, and organizational goals and strategies is considered a serious disadvantage of organizations. Moreover, lack of evaluation in a system is regarded as lack of communication with internal and external environments which leads to organizational senility and, ultimately, death. In this paper a meta-analysis is used to review literature from various sources available on performance appraisal and influences of bias and errors in evaluation in Sabzevar. The results showed that PE system can result in improvement of the performance of both employees and organizations. Decrease in errors and bias can bring about employee performance improvement as well as an increase in satisfaction with and efficiency
of evaluation system.

The impact of organizational culture on organizational performance: The mediating role of employee’s organizational commitment

Amin Nikpour

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2017, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 65-72
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2017.60432

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mediating role of employee’s organizational commitment on the relationship between organizational culture and organizational performance. This study was descriptive and correlational research that was conducted through the survey method. The study population consisted of all employees in education office of Kerman province and 190 persons were selected as volume of sample by using Cochran’s formula. The data gathering tools were organizational culture, organizational commitment, and organizational performance questionnaires. Descriptive and inferential statistics (structural equation modeling through path analysis) were used to analyze the data. The data was analyzed using SPSS and AMOS softwares. The findings of the research indicated that suggested model had appropriate fit and organizational culture beyond its direct impact exerted indirect impact on organizational performance through the mediation of employee’s organizational commitment that the extent of indirect impact was significantly higher than direct impact. 

Leadership 4.0: Digital Leaders in the Age of Industry 4.0

Birgit Oberer; Alptekin Erkollar

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2018, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 404-412
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60332

Industry 4.0 stands for ‘fourth industrial revolution and is a term referring to rapid transformations in the design, production, implementation, operation, and service of manufacturing systems, products, and components. To get the most out of Industry 4.0 technologies, organizations will have to heavily invest in building capabilities in the following dimensions: data and connectivity, analytics and intelligence, conversion to the physical world, and human-machine interaction. In this study, the human dimension of industry 4.0 has priority, by analyzing behavioral leadership theories that focus on the study of the specific behaviors of a leader (the leader behavior is the predictor of his leadership influences and is the best determinant of his leadership success). A two dimensional 4.0 leadership style matrix was developed (x-axis: innovation/technology concern; y-axis: people concern). The results of this study revealed that the developed industry 4.0 leadership style might have the dimensions of first-year students, social, technological or digital, where the 4.0 digital leader forms the highest reachable level in the 4.0 leadership matrix.

Effect of Family Influence, Personal Interest and Economic Considerations on Career Choice amongst Undergraduate Students in Higher Educational Institutions of Vehari, Pakistan

Asad Afzal Humayon; Shoaib Raza; Rao Aamir Khan; Noor ul ain Ansari

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2018, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 129-142
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60333

This study examined the effect of family influence, personal interest, and economic considerations in career choice amongst undergraduate students. The present study used quantitative research design. Target population was undergraduate students of higher educational institutions in Vehari, Pakistan. Cross-sectional data was used in this study. For data collection simple random sampling technique was used. The data was collected through structured questionnaire. The descriptive, demographic, reliability, correlation, and multiple regression analyses were applied to find answer to research questions. The results of regression analysis showed that the family influence, personal interest and economic considerations exercised big influence on the career choice of students. The Limitations of the study, suggestion for the future study, theoretical and practical implications were also discussed in this study.

Exploring the Effect of Leader Member Exchange (LMX) Level on Employees Psychological Contract Perceptions

Atilhan Naktiyok; Mehmet Emirhan Kula

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2018, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 120-128
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60335

Leader member exchange (LMX) theory emphasizes that leaders establish different associations with each one of their followers through a system of exchanges and a psychological contract is an employees beliefs regarding the mutual obligations between the employee and an employer. Within this study the impact of subordinates’ leader member exchange level on perceived psychological contract violation has been identified at first and it has been found that subordinates’ leader member exchange level negatively effect on perceived psychological contract violation. Also it is seen when the demographic variables are taken into account that there are significant relations between education level, type of employment and age categories.

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