About Journal

International Journal of Organizational Leadership is devoted to theoretical and empirical research concerning organizational behaviour, organizational psychology, and managers' leadership tactics and consequences.  Topics covered by the journal include perception, cognition, judgment, attitudes, emotion, well-being, motivation, choice, and performance. Its specific purposes are to foster an improved understanding of how people in an organization are led and how business conduct can affect leadership. This journal brings together a focus on leadership for scholars,...
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Linking Self-efficacy and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Moderated Mediation Model

Saif Ullah; Basharat Raza; Wasif Ali; Sana Amjad Amjad; Atif Khan Jadoon

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 233-247
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60528

This study investigates the relationship between self-efficacy and Organization Citizenship Behavior (OCB), moderated by incivility and mediated by pro-social motivation. Self-efficacy is the employee's belief in him about his skills to perform tasks in different situations. The direct and indirect effects of self-efficacy of teachers towards their OCB through prosocial motivation have been observed in this study. For this purpose, data has been collected through questionnaires (N = 301) using convenience sampling in three-time phases with two weeks gaps between each phase. SPSS 22.0 and Amos 22.0 were used along with Process by Hayes for moderated mediation analysis. The results indicate that self-efficacy leads to organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and pro-social motivation, moderated by incivility and mediated by pro-social motivation. In a nutshell, this study demonstrates self-efficacy enhances pro-social motivation and OCB within academic settings with reference to Pakistan, advocating that if teachers are confident to perform a task, they can also demonstrate their extra-role behavior. The present study contributes to the literature by analyzing the novel framework within the Pakistan context. The mediating effect of prosocial motivation between teachers’ self-efficacy and OCB has not been discussed in the prior studies. The implications, discussion, and conclusion are also discussed.

Personality Matters: Prediction of Organizational Commitment Using Leadership and Personality

Thomas Meixner; Richard Pospisil

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 248-265
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60529

This study examines the association between employees’ personality, organizational commitment, and perception of their leaders’ behavior and communication quality. Following this leading research scope, a literature review is conducted, describing different models of organizational commitment and its multi-factorial structure. Leadership is discussed within the framework of transformational, transactional, and avoidant leadership. Leadership and personality variables alike are considered potential predictors of organizational commitment, as it is assessed within this study both from the perspective of emotional and behavioral aspects. The empirical research followed a quantitative, correlative approach, utilizing a sample of n = 300 German business professionals from various fields and applying measures of emotional and behavioral commitment, perceived leadership communication quality, perceived leadership style (transformational, transactional, or avoidant), and employee personality were administered using an online survey. The statistical analyses followed a correlational approach to explain the interplay between the aspects of leadership, personality, and organizational commitment. Using multiple stepwise regression analyses, the study was able to show how both emotional and behavioral commitment are predicted by employee personality (conscientiousness for both measures, neuroticism additionally for emotional commitment), by the perception of a transformational leadership style, and by perceived leadership communication quality. Using these variables, a total of around 30% of the overall variance in both measures of organizational commitment could be explained. Thus, the critical function of leadership and leadership communication in organizational commitment may be demonstrated in conjunction with the role of employee personality. Additionally, the measure of emotional and behavioral commitment's criterion validity may be validated.

Conceptual Fundamentals of Organizational and Economic Mechanism Formation of Economic Sustainability Management of a Telecommunication Enterprise

Svitlana Birbirenko; Svitlana Yevtukhova; Marharyta Chepeliuk; Tetiana Kravchenko; Liudmyla Melnyk

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 266-277
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60530

Modern telecommunications companies operate in conditions of risk and uncertainty due to both external and internal factors. Due to the influence of various factors, companies may find themselves in a state of crisis due to the lack of a management mechanism, the main purpose of which is to ensure economic stability and efficiency based on sustainable capacity building. This article aims to identify the factors that affect the economic stability of telecommunications enterprises in Ukraine and study their impact on the integrated indicator to form an organizational and economic mechanism for managing economic stability. The study was carried out using the following methods: analysis, synthesis, generalization, systematization, correlation, and regression analysis. The main tendencies of Ukrainian telecommunication networks development are defined in this research. The key structural element of this mechanism is proposed to determine the assessment of economic stability based on the use of a set of balanced indicators. Based on correlation and regression analysis, a significant dependence of the overall integrated indicator of economic stability on the subscriber component, moderate - on the component of internal business processes and staff training and development, and a weak inverse dependence on the financial component. Using multicollinearity proved expediency to check the tightness of the relationship between the analyzed variables in the regression model.

Eyeing at Eastern Philosophy for Business Leadership Model

Khurram Ellahi Khan; Omar Khalid Bhatti; Sadaf Kashif

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 278-298
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60540

Leadership is both an art and a skill. As a skill, it requires the practical ability of an individual, group, or organization to lead, influence, and guide other individuals. As an art, leadership requires the art of motivating a group of people to act unanimously toward achieving a common goal. In a business setting, this can guide employees with a strategy to meet the company's needs. Leadership has widely been studied from the Western perspective; however, this study focuses on exploring leadership from the eastern perspective. There is a certain hegemony of Western leadership ideas, which are not aligned with oriental cultures and workplaces. Moreover, this study explores how leadership is defined, evolved, and how the Western school of thought has solely influenced it. To explore the concept of leadership, a qualitative approach was taken. Qualitative open-ended fifteen interviews were conducted with theorists and practitioners of management and business studies from three nationalities i.e. Pakistan, Turkey, and Malaysia. The findings highlight that leadership literature stems from Western values, which is incongruent with Eastern literature and wisdom and specifically not aligned with indigenous thoughts of Pakistan, Turkey, and Malaysia. Respondents considered it another form of hegemony and urged for pacing up critical studies in the realm of leadership. Respondents also added that if more studies are taken into account from Eastern cultures, more avenues could be opened to address the dilemmas in management sciences. 

Influence of Psychological Capital on Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: The Mediating Role of Psychological Well-being

Saeed T. Alshahrani; Kamran Iqbal

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 299-312
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60542

The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediating role of psychological well-being between psychological capital and organizational citizenship behavior. To achieve the objectives of this study, data has been collected using a survey method through a cross-sectional technique from employees (n =199) working at higher education institutes in Pakistan. The Preacher and Hayes (2008) method of bootstrapping has been employed by using the Process macro for SPSS. The results of the analysis indicated that psychological well-being works as a mediating mechanism between psychological capital and organizational citizenship behavior. The critical flow-on effects of this study are that it has both theoretical and practical implications in the workplace. Therefore, the logical connection is that this study has filled the gap in the literature by testing the mediating role of psychological well-being in the link between psychological capital and organizational citizenship behavior. Apart from the theoretical implication, there are practical implications of the resulting analysis for practitioners, especially those in higher management of education institutes who are keen to see extra-role behaviors displayed in their staff. The authors have also discussed the limitation and future direction of the study, which will help future researchers to extend this study.

HRM Practices and Organizational Performance of Higher Secondary Educational Institutions: Mediating Role of Service Innovation and Organizational Commitment

Ayesha Nawal; Muhammad Shoaib; Asad Ur Rehman; Roman Zámečník

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 313-330
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60543

Higher secondary educational institutions are criticized for deteriorating performance. However, rare studies addressed the declining performance because of Inadequate HRM practices, low commitment, and staff incompatibility with emerging technological trends. This study intends to examine the influence of HRM practices on service innovation and organizational commitment and their subsequent effect on the performance of higher secondary educational institutions. The study also aims to examine the mediational role of service innovation and organizational commitment. The study also investigates the inter-relationship of HRM practices, service innovation, organizational commitment, and organizational performance simultaneously in a single model has not been conducted in higher secondary educational institutions of Pakistan. This study is descriptive, deductive, explanatory, and cross-sectional. Data was collected from 372 staff members working in higher secondary educational institutions, and SEM was used for data analysis. The findings signposted that HRM practices have a positive effect on service innovation and organizational commitment. On the other hand, HRM practices did not have a significant direct positive effect on organizational performance. Moreover, service innovation and organizational commitment positively affected performance and fully mediated the relationship between HRM practices and organizational performance. All the proposed hypotheses were supported except H3. This study offers significant guidelines for educational institutions by predicting the influential factors to improve performance. This study of HRM practices to improve the performance of higher secondary educational institutions with mediating role of service innovation and organizational commitment is a unique theoretical contribution. Consideration of service innovation in education is a noteworthy insight into the literature

Exploring Chinese School Principal Experiences and Leadership Practice in Building a Professional Learning Community for Student Achievement

Wei Zhang; Tetyana Koshmanova

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, In Press
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60594

This basic qualitative study explores Chinese high school principals' concepts, experiences, and opinions in building a professional learning community for student achievement in China. The semi-structural interview protocol was used to collect data from Chinese principals (N = 12) to investigate their challenges for school practical recommendations. Findings show that principals face three major challenges: (1) high exam score culture and top schools cause disengagement and lose educational core values; (2) parent high expectation causes difficulty of school growth; (3) lack of enough educational resources cause insufficient administration, teaching, and learning. In addition, findings show that principals play three major roles: (1) reconciling top-down policy intent role; (2) head role; (3) mediating role. Further, this study found that principals use three strategies to build a professional learning community: (1) communication, (2) value-based policy, and (3) engagement with a high salary and support program. Finally, this study found that school principals need to shift from the high testing score to emphasize educational core values. They also need to shift from power and authority to transformational, distributed, social-justice, and Junzi leadership; and from student testing score sole evaluation system to integrated teaching pedagogical support system for delivering high-quality teaching. Therefore, future studies could use the exploratory sequential mixed methods research design to explore how school principals use social justice, distributed, Junzi, and transformational leadership in the K-12 school contexts in the United States and China.

The Mediating Effect of Perceived Stress on Transformational and Passive-Avoidant, Leadership-Commitment Linkages

Ozge Tayfur Ekmekci; Selin Metin Camgoz; Semra Guney; Mustafa Kemal Oktem

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, In Press
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60545

The current study tests an integrative model that considers the plausible effects of transformational and passive-avoidant leadership styles on employees’ affective, normative, and continuance commitment to the organization. While leadership styles are treated as predictors of commitment, perceived stress is treated as a mediating factor in understanding the underlying mechanism of commitment. Data were collected from 232 white and blue-collar employees working at regional divisions of a privatized organization, monitoring Turkey’s electricity distribution services. The hypothesized mediation model was tested using structural equation modeling. Using the bootstrapping method, the indirect effects of both transformational leadership and passive-avoidant leadership on affective and normative commitment via perceived stress were found to be significant. However, contrary to the expectations, the mediating effects of perceived stress were found to be insignificant for relations between transformational leadership and continuance commitment and between passive-avoidant leadership and continuance commitment. The overall results suggest that employees tend to feel less tension and stress and thus ultimately become more affectively and normatively committed to the organizations when the supervisors exhibit transformational leadership behaviors. Passive-avoidant leadership behaviors, on the other hand, act as distal predictors of affective and normative commitment via perceived stress. By enacting passively and showing ignorance to subordinates' needs, passive leaders seem to intensify workplace stressors for followers.

The Effect of strategic leadership and empowerment on job satisfaction of the employees of Guilan University

Mostafa Ebrahimpour Azbari; Mohsen Akbari; Milad Hooshmand Chaijani

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2015, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 453-464
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60230

The methods for the management and leadership of educational and research organizations has always been a question of some researchers. With the emergence of the strategic management in educational organizations, different views were raised about the management of these institutions whether it is possible to apply issues related to the business and educational administration field. They both agree on the difference between educational environment and business environment. This difference leads to different research areas which one of them is the managers’ educational leadership style. Regarding to the educational research centers’ management, strategic leadership is one of leadership styles. This paper examined the effect of this leadership style on empowerment and job satisfaction of employees of Guilan University. The statistical population of the study consisted of 235 employees of Guilan University. Smart PLS software and Structural Equation Modeling were used for data analysis. The results showed that the style of strategic leadership and employee empowerment had a significant positive effect on job satisfaction.

The relationship between glass ceiling and power distance as a cultural variable by a new method

Naide Jahangirov; Guler Saglam Ari; Seymur Jahangirov; Nuray Guneri Tosunoglu

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2015, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 465-483
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60300

Glass ceiling symbolizes a variety of barriers and obstacles that arise from gender inequality at business life. With this mind, culture influences gender dynamics. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between the glass ceiling and the power distance as a cultural variable within organizations. Gender variable is taken as a moderator variable in relationship between the concepts. In addition to conventional correlation analysis, we employed a new method to investigate this relationship in detail. The survey data were obtained from 109 people working at a research center which operated as a part of the non-profit private university in Ankara, Turkey. The relationship between the variables was revealed by a new method which was developed as an addition to the correlation in survey.  The analysis revealed that the female staff perceived the glass ceiling and the power distance more intensely than the male staff. In addition, the medium level relation was determined between the power distance and the glass ceiling perception among female staff.

An investigation into the relationship between the organizational intelligence and the performance of Melli and Mehr Eghtesad banks managers in Ardabil

Fatemeh Bagheri Toolarood; Shahram Mirzaei Daryani

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2015, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 374-391
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60345

The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the organizational intelligence and the performance of Melli and Mehr Eghtesad banks managers in Ardabil. In the present study cross-correlation method was used. The population consisted of all managers and assistants of Melli and Mehr Eghtesad banks in Ardabil which were about 132 people. The main tools of data collection were a standardized questionnaire that assigned for organization intelligence and a researcher-made questionnaire measured the relationship between two variables. To test the hypothesis, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Spearman’s Correlation coefficient, and Mann-Whitney U Test Statistics were used. The findings revealed that there was a significant relationship between the organizational intelligence variables and the performance of banks managers and there was no significant difference between the organizational intelligence of Melli and Mehr Eghtesad banks managers.

Examination of the Effects of Emotional Intelligence and Authentic Leadership on the Employees in the Organizations

Zafer Adigüzel; Eda Kuloglu

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2019, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 13-30
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2019.60412

In the highly competitive environment of the business world, organizations implement human resource policies and practices to increase the motivation and performance of employees. Efforts to keep employee turnover at minimum levels are directly proportional to employee satisfaction and their willingness to stay in the organization. Employees’ dissatisfaction, leaders’ attitudes and behaviours, human resources policies determine the life of the organizations. The increase in the employment turnover rate can decrease the performance of the organization, bring additional costs and cause employee trainings to be ineffective. In particular, the qualified employees can easily leave the organization if they do not like the management approach leads to the formation of different management understandings and perspectives. The leadership style of the managers and the human resources policies can shape the future of the organizations.  Therefore, it is important to conduct studies in this field to help the senior managers to make decisions and demonstrate their leadership roles. The sample of this study consists of 498 white-collar employees working in the private and public sector. The findings were subjected to factor and reliability analyses by using IBM SPSS 23 program. The hypotheses were tested by regression analysis and the results were evaluated and presented accordingly.

THE IMPORTANCE OF ADVERTISING SLOGANS AND THEIR PROPER DESIGNING IN BRAND EQUITY

Somayeh Abdi; Abdollah Irandoust

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 62-69
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2013.60321

The term slogan derives from Slough-ghairm, pronounced as Slogorm from Scottish Gaelic which means battle cry. Slogan is usually an unforgettable phrase that is frequently used to express an idea or purpose. Slogans have been employed in religious and political areas since long time ago, but today they are mostly used in business and trading.
They vary from other ordinary text and images, and often because of their simple structure cannot convey a lot of concepts and details. Hereupon, slogans instead of drawing specific audience, address general audience to convey their particular meanings. Brand owners pay lots of money to advertising agencies to come up with snappy advertising slogans. Advertising slogans often claim to have knowledge of something and attempt to show it.
Slogans usually serve a substantial role in calling audience’s attention to one or more aspects of a product or service. Normally slogans claim that the advertised product or service is of the highest quality, or is the most delicious, the most inexpensive, or nutritious… one. The slogans should point out, at least, the most important advantage of a product, or respond to the audience’s needs, or offer more benefits for their future/probable customers.

Leadership 4.0: Digital Leaders in the Age of Industry 4.0

Birgit Oberer; Alptekin Erkollar

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2018, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 404-412
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60332

Industry 4.0 stands for ‘fourth industrial revolution and is a term referring to rapid transformations in the design, production, implementation, operation, and service of manufacturing systems, products, and components. To get the most out of Industry 4.0 technologies, organizations will have to heavily invest in building capabilities in the following dimensions: data and connectivity, analytics and intelligence, conversion to the physical world, and human-machine interaction. In this study, the human dimension of industry 4.0 has priority, by analyzing behavioral leadership theories that focus on the study of the specific behaviors of a leader (the leader behavior is the predictor of his leadership influences and is the best determinant of his leadership success). A two dimensional 4.0 leadership style matrix was developed (x-axis: innovation/technology concern; y-axis: people concern). The results of this study revealed that the developed industry 4.0 leadership style might have the dimensions of first-year students, social, technological or digital, where the 4.0 digital leader forms the highest reachable level in the 4.0 leadership matrix.

Leadership Competency Model-Drenica: Generalizability of Leadership Competencies

Fadil Çitaku; Hetem Ramadani

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2020, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 152-162
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60502

This paper aims to summarize the generalizability of leadership competencies published in field of leadership. This present study used the Leadership Competencies Model of Çitaku et al. (2012), which has investigated six most developed western countries (Austria (A), Germany (D), Switzerland (CH), United States of America (USA), Canada (CA) and United Kingdom (UK)) to find out leadership competencies for efficient leaders. We randomly selected 25 leadership competencies using the Research Randomizer tool and systematically researched on Google Scholar, how many times occur leadership competencies, published between the 2010 and 2020. The analysis of the related literature was conducted by employing a bibliometric analysis of the research on the Google Scholar database between 2010 and 2020. The results of present study showed that there is an outstanding interest in our randomly chosen leadership competences and that these 25 competencies can be applied in any leadership domain. The study brought out 25 important leadership competencies incorporated in seven important domains, resulting with leadership competencies model named DRENICA, which is scientifically robust and can be used in leadership training courses and programs, in all leadership domains. The study concluded that 25 randomly chosen leadership competencies are robust, generalized and can be used in any leadership domain. Future research should be designed to replicate, extend and confirm the present findings. Meanwhile, we have provided a “Leadership Competency Model-Drenica” that can be employed to teach and further investigate leadership competences.

Leadership of Xi Jinping behind Unstoppable Sustainable Economic Growth of China

Bablu Kumar Dhar; Mahazan Mutalib

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2020, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 39-47
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60489

Xi Jinping's new era of socialist economic thought, rooted in the great practice of China's economic construction, systematically explains the issue of China's economic development and reform, and clearly answers the important questions of how the economic situation is to be judged, how to judge the development stage, how to determine the development goals, and how to do economic work. Xi Jinping's new era of the socialist economy with Chinese characteristics, system integrity, broad depth, logic and strict, each aspect of the discourse has a creative and vital point of view, forward-looking strategic deployment and "four beams and eight pillars" of the key initiatives. Combining the in-depth study of Xi Jinping's new era socialist ideology with Chinese characteristics and the spirit of the Party's 19th National Congress, this paper tries to sort out Xi Jinping's new era socialist economic thought with Chinese characteristics from five aspects, such as direction theory, goal theory, epistemology, strategy theory, and bottom-line theory.

The impact of organizational culture on organizational performance: The mediating role of employee’s organizational commitment

Amin Nikpour

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2017, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 65-72
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2017.60432

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mediating role of employee’s organizational commitment on the relationship between organizational culture and organizational performance. This study was descriptive and correlational research that was conducted through the survey method. The study population consisted of all employees in education office of Kerman province and 190 persons were selected as volume of sample by using Cochran’s formula. The data gathering tools were organizational culture, organizational commitment, and organizational performance questionnaires. Descriptive and inferential statistics (structural equation modeling through path analysis) were used to analyze the data. The data was analyzed using SPSS and AMOS softwares. The findings of the research indicated that suggested model had appropriate fit and organizational culture beyond its direct impact exerted indirect impact on organizational performance through the mediation of employee’s organizational commitment that the extent of indirect impact was significantly higher than direct impact. 

Performance appraisal bias and errors: The influences and consequences

Mahmoud Javidmehr; Mehrdad Ebrahimpour

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2015, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 286-302
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60464

Individual performance evaluation (PE) provides a link between individual performance and organizational performance. PE is of considerable importance in human resource management (HRM). Lack of evaluation in various organizational dimensions, such as evaluation of resources and facilities, employees, and organizational goals and strategies is considered a serious disadvantage of organizations. Moreover, lack of evaluation in a system is regarded as lack of communication with internal and external environments which leads to organizational senility and, ultimately, death. In this paper a meta-analysis is used to review literature from various sources available on performance appraisal and influences of bias and errors in evaluation in Sabzevar. The results showed that PE system can result in improvement of the performance of both employees and organizations. Decrease in errors and bias can bring about employee performance improvement as well as an increase in satisfaction with and efficiency
of evaluation system.

The impact of organizational culture on organizational performance: The mediating role of employee’s organizational commitment

Amin Nikpour

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2017, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 65-72
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2017.60432

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mediating role of employee’s organizational commitment on the relationship between organizational culture and organizational performance. This study was descriptive and correlational research that was conducted through the survey method. The study population consisted of all employees in education office of Kerman province and 190 persons were selected as volume of sample by using Cochran’s formula. The data gathering tools were organizational culture, organizational commitment, and organizational performance questionnaires. Descriptive and inferential statistics (structural equation modeling through path analysis) were used to analyze the data. The data was analyzed using SPSS and AMOS softwares. The findings of the research indicated that suggested model had appropriate fit and organizational culture beyond its direct impact exerted indirect impact on organizational performance through the mediation of employee’s organizational commitment that the extent of indirect impact was significantly higher than direct impact. 

Leadership 4.0: Digital Leaders in the Age of Industry 4.0

Birgit Oberer; Alptekin Erkollar

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2018, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 404-412
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60332

Industry 4.0 stands for ‘fourth industrial revolution and is a term referring to rapid transformations in the design, production, implementation, operation, and service of manufacturing systems, products, and components. To get the most out of Industry 4.0 technologies, organizations will have to heavily invest in building capabilities in the following dimensions: data and connectivity, analytics and intelligence, conversion to the physical world, and human-machine interaction. In this study, the human dimension of industry 4.0 has priority, by analyzing behavioral leadership theories that focus on the study of the specific behaviors of a leader (the leader behavior is the predictor of his leadership influences and is the best determinant of his leadership success). A two dimensional 4.0 leadership style matrix was developed (x-axis: innovation/technology concern; y-axis: people concern). The results of this study revealed that the developed industry 4.0 leadership style might have the dimensions of first-year students, social, technological or digital, where the 4.0 digital leader forms the highest reachable level in the 4.0 leadership matrix.

Decentralization and Innovative Behavior: The Moderating Role of Supervisor Support

Mahlagha Darvishmotevali

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2019, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 31-45
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2019.60204

The importance of innovative behavior for organizational effectiveness has been wildly accepted. Spite of the importance of organizational structure to promote the innovative behavior, little is known regarding the decentralized system in service industry. In addition, the role of supervisor support in such circumstances is highly significant; however, the link between decentralization, supervisory support and innovation is not particularly clear. Therefore, the current study aims to examine the impact of decentralization on employees’ innovative behavior and also to investigate the moderating role of supervisor support in this process. Data was collected from 323 employees from five star hotels in North Cyprus. Structural equation modelling was applied to evaluate the measurements and model’s fit. The study hypotheses were tested using LISREL 8.54. The results revealed that decentralized system has a positive impact on employees’ innovative behavior. Moreover, moderating role of supervisory support in helping employees to achieve organizational innovative goals was significant. The existence of decentralization opens new opportunities for organizations and increases the innovative behavior among employees. Employees who have degree of freedom for decision-making and risk-taking within an organization are more creative, and will take the initiative to seek new and efficient ways and approaches of doing their jobs.

Effect of Family Influence, Personal Interest and Economic Considerations on Career Choice amongst Undergraduate Students in Higher Educational Institutions of Vehari, Pakistan

Asad Afzal Humayon; Shoaib Raza; Rao Aamir Khan; Noor ul ain Ansari

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2018, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 129-142
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60333

This study examined the effect of family influence, personal interest, and economic considerations in career choice amongst undergraduate students. The present study used quantitative research design. Target population was undergraduate students of higher educational institutions in Vehari, Pakistan. Cross-sectional data was used in this study. For data collection simple random sampling technique was used. The data was collected through structured questionnaire. The descriptive, demographic, reliability, correlation, and multiple regression analyses were applied to find answer to research questions. The results of regression analysis showed that the family influence, personal interest and economic considerations exercised big influence on the career choice of students. The Limitations of the study, suggestion for the future study, theoretical and practical implications were also discussed in this study.

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