Keywords : Leadership

Transparency of the Concepts of Directing and Leadership in Organizational Leadership Theory based on Critical Hermeneutics Theory

Shalaleh Kameli; Shahram Mirzaei Daryani; Mohammad Kheirandish; Majid Ahmadlou

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2020, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 105-122
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60499

Some researchers consider leadership and directing to be equivalent as much as they use them interchangeably. According to the study of the historical course done in this research, this issue has been seen more than ever in recent texts. In this study, the critical hermeneutics of Prasad’s (2005) four-stage model was used. In the first stage, the data was collected from books, and papers related to organizational leadership theory. To this end, 61 definitions of organizational leadership and eight definitions of directing have been collected from the viewpoint of management experts. Ambiguities were raised in the form of questions about the intentions of the authors of the relevant texts. In the second stage, layers of texts were interpreted, and themes and concepts were extracted. In the third stage, to close the hermeneutic cycle, a narrative case was used, which is the personal experience of an organizational leader of the distinction between leadership and directing. The final stage was suggested to the researchers not to consider the words ‘leadership’ and ‘directing’ equivalent or interchangeable. Directing is a part of leadership that is more or less applied depending on the type of leadership style. It is also recommended for experts in marketing, business and economics to use the alternative terms market pioneer and industry director instead of the words market leader and industry leader because obedience to other organizations may be due to duty not influence or follow-up.

Leadership of Xi Jinping behind Unstoppable Sustainable Economic Growth of China

Bablu Kumar Dhar; Mahazan Mutalib

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2020, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 39-47
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60489

Xi Jinping's new era of socialist economic thought, rooted in the great practice of China's economic construction, systematically explains the issue of China's economic development and reform, and clearly answers the important questions of how the economic situation is to be judged, how to judge the development stage, how to determine the development goals, and how to do economic work. Xi Jinping's new era of the socialist economy with Chinese characteristics, system integrity, broad depth, logic and strict, each aspect of the discourse has a creative and vital point of view, forward-looking strategic deployment and "four beams and eight pillars" of the key initiatives. Combining the in-depth study of Xi Jinping's new era socialist ideology with Chinese characteristics and the spirit of the Party's 19th National Congress, this paper tries to sort out Xi Jinping's new era socialist economic thought with Chinese characteristics from five aspects, such as direction theory, goal theory, epistemology, strategy theory, and bottom-line theory.

The Leadership Process in Teacher Education: A Case Study at the University of Lisbon

Ana Luísa Rodrigues

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2019, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 22-37
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60485

The leadership and pedagogical supervision process in teacher education is a crucial issue for the training pedagogical quality and teachers’ professional development. The relationship that is necessary to establish between the Higher Education Institution and the Cooperating Schools where the supervised pedagogical practice is carried out is crucial. In this study we analyze this process of shared leadership and supervision, understanding this relationship from a perspective of effective collaboration, reflexivity and sharing of practices between various contributors – the preservice teacher, the university professor and the mentor teacher. Based on this premise, we shall analyze the importance of leadership in an educational context and the role of supervision for the improvement of organizational and teaching-learning situations and experiences. The aim of this study is to promote autonomy and shared interaction, contributing to professional development and knowledge co-construction. In methodological terms, this is a case study, within the scope of the Master in Teaching of Economics and Accounting at the Institute of Education, University of Lisbon, the only master’s degree in Portugal that provides a professional qualification for teaching in secondary education in the area of Economics and Accounting. This study intends to obtain a characterization of the leadership and supervision process developed, to reflect on appropriate leadership theories in educational context and to outline the main functions of the mentor teacher as a fundamental part of the collaborative supervision process, framed in the current model of teacher training in Portugal.

A Cross-cultural Analysis of Management Approaches in Comparison to Turkish and Swiss Companies

Erdem Erciyes

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2019, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60483

This research investigates management approaches though a cross-cultural analysis of both Turkish and Swiss companies. A qualitative and exploratory research method was employed. Organizational culture, leadership and motivation have been investigated separately in the research. This approach provided a better understanding for highlighting different parts of both subjects and showed how they were related to each other. While the human oriented leadership types and management approach are beginning to gain popularity in Turkish companies, democratic and participatory types of leadership are more common in Swiss companies. Likewise, McClelland’s need of achievement and Maslow’s need of esteem are the most popular motivational preferences in Turkish companies. On the other hand, Swiss managers prefer McClelland’s human motivation theory in praxis. In addition, the findings of the research indicate that managerial awareness about different nationalities should be increased in both Turkish and Swiss companies. Managers who have high cultural intelligence should be employed and cultural sensitivity should be embedded into corporate culture of the companies. The findings of this research do not present different management systems or develop scientific road maps for dealing with various cultures, however, it emphasizes the importance of showing managerial awareness about different nationalities in the work environment.

Leadership Styles of Managers from the Perspective of Gender

Lucia Zbihlejová; Miroslav Frankovský; Zuzana Birknerová

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2018, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 340-347
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60216

The main objective of the study is to find out whether there are any statistically significant differences in the assessment of the selected leadership attributes between managers from the perspective of gender. A differential analysis was conducted on the sample of 129 respondents (55 male managers – 42.6% and 74 female managers – 57.4%) on the basis of the data collected by means of two methodologies for detecting the leadership behavior attributes: Managerial Grid (Blake and Mouton, 1964) and the new original methodology PALEQ (Paternalistic Leadership Questionnaire). The results of the analyses confirmed the existence of statistically significant differences between male and female managers in assessing the individual leadership attributes. Based on these results, it can be concluded that in terms of the assessment of leadership behavior, male managers use the authoritarian forms of leadership more extensively, whereas female managers are more oriented at the lenient, clement leadership behavior, as compared to the male managers.

Leadership 4.0: Digital Leaders in the Age of Industry 4.0

Birgit Oberer; Alptekin Erkollar

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2018, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 404-412
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60332

Industry 4.0 stands for ‘fourth industrial revolution and is a term referring to rapid transformations in the design, production, implementation, operation, and service of manufacturing systems, products, and components. To get the most out of Industry 4.0 technologies, organizations will have to heavily invest in building capabilities in the following dimensions: data and connectivity, analytics and intelligence, conversion to the physical world, and human-machine interaction. In this study, the human dimension of industry 4.0 has priority, by analyzing behavioral leadership theories that focus on the study of the specific behaviors of a leader (the leader behavior is the predictor of his leadership influences and is the best determinant of his leadership success). A two dimensional 4.0 leadership style matrix was developed (x-axis: innovation/technology concern; y-axis: people concern). The results of this study revealed that the developed industry 4.0 leadership style might have the dimensions of first-year students, social, technological or digital, where the 4.0 digital leader forms the highest reachable level in the 4.0 leadership matrix.

Leadership and Organization for the Companies in the Process of Industry 4.0 Transformation

Özlem Akçay Kasapoglu

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2018, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 300-308
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60217

The global effect of disruptive technology has brought about huge productivity improvements in manufacturing. The changing and differentiated demand of the customers pushed the industry to improve their production systems in the Industry 4.0 concept for being more responsive to the changing conditions. The increased knowledge level on the data science made the data analytics possible and more meaningful. Industry 4.0 is the common name used to describe the current trend towards a fully connected and automated manufacturing system, or Smart Factory. All production decisions are optimized based on real time information from a fully integrated and linked set of equipment and people. There is an urgency in the manufacturing companies to change their technology, knowledge, and he workforce skills for the Industry 4.0 understanding in order to stay competitive. The transformation process to the Industry 4.0 concept is a strategic decision and it requires leadership to deploy the strategy all through the organization by training from the top to the bottom of the organization.

Assessment of Leadership for Innovation and Perceived Organizational Innovativeness: Differences between Self-Reported Individual and Social Creativity

Per Eisele

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2017, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 470-480
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2017.60326

The aim of the present study was to investigate how employees assess innovation and leadership and to know if there was a difference between individual and social creativity in these assessments. In a private firm within the creative industry, employees (N=153) assessed organizational innovativeness and leadership for innovation. The perceived organizational innovativeness scale (PORGI) and a new leadership for innovation scale (LIS) were used. Independent variables were self-report measurements of individual creativity and social creativity. Analysis indicates that the company is perceived as innovative but the leaders score low on leadership for innovation. Socially creative employees view their workplace as less innovative than individually creative people and is also more negative in the assessment of their leader’s ability to facilitate innovation. Notably, social creativity correlated negatively with leadership for innovation and perceived organizational innovativeness.

A Critical Review of Implicit Leadership Theory on the Validity of Organizational Actor-National Culture Fitness

Alperen Öztürk; M. Abdülkadir Varoglu; Demet Varoglu

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2017, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 456-469
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2017.60357

According to implicit leadership literature, actor-national culture fitness is a necessity to be labeled as a leader. However, studies which focus on implicit leadership theory and national culture have some contradictory findings. A systematic review of these studies reveals that participants could score high on opposite implicit leadership values and a sufficient theoretical explanation for these surprising results have not been given so far. This paper argues that showing full harmony with the cultural expectations of followers is not a necessity to be seen as a leader. Actors who can fill the cultural gap with their different cultural values can also be labeled as leaders. This paper contends that organizational actors with cultural values differing from those of the followers with certain cultural orientations are more likely to be labeled as leaders. People from individualistic societies may be more prone to label ‘team-oriented leadership’ dimension as their outstanding leadership prototype whereas people from masculine societies may show ‘humane oriented leadership’ as their outstanding leadership prototype.

A guide on taking the leadership of your life

Tobias Ebbing; Arne Petermann

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2017, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 296-307
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2017.60390

Having control over your life requires selected modern and classical concepts of leadership and tranquillity to assist you in analysing and approaching different situations in life and business. Based on Heifetz (1994) a method of building a distant view on events is introduced to enable more rational decision-making. A theory of contextual awareness is developed based on classical philosophies. Responsibilities in a certain context are identified and classified in order to help you understand the effects of your actions. For proper interaction with the own context, a model of integrity based on Erhard, Jensen, and Zaffron (2014) is suggested. Finally, a selection of sources for strength and courage are introduced to lead us a happy and meaningful life constantly. This paper should serve as an expandable framework for the application of inspired and reflected theories on leadership in the reader’s life. Therefore, the present study concludes with recapitulating questions to support putting theories into action and applying the presented instruments.