Keywords : Leadership

Influence of Responsible Leadership on Inclusive Organizations: A Mixed-Method Study

Omar Khalid Bhatti; Muhammad Irfan; Ali Osman Öztürk

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, In Press
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2023.60348

The ever-increasing diversity in organizations demands deliberate efforts to include the members in organizational activities. Responsible leadership, a blend of corporate social responsibility, ethics, and leadership, can generate willing cooperation and an urge to fully participate, which is pivotal to the success of the inclusive organization. This study explores the influence of responsible leadership on inclusive organization and uncovers its domains and pathways. Sequential mixed methods design has been adopted using both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Qualitative data comprise 25 semi-structured in-depth interviews, and quantitative data 800 responses on questionnaires, collected from eight organizations, four each from the manufacturing and services sectors. It has been found that responsible leadership significantly influences the inclusive organization. The influence is exerted in social and ethical domains and follows five different pathways within each domain. It is also concluded that a responsible leadership style is better suited for inclusive organizations.

Factors Affecting the Success of Women Entrepreneurs in Egypt

Miriam Abdelwahid; Hebatalla Kaoud

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue 4, Pages 444-461
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60344

Women's entrepreneurship is still a topic of interest on a global scale. According to studies by many scholars, the rate of female entrepreneurship activities and initiatives is considerably lower than those of men, especially in countries experiencing high gender inequality. The predominance of cultural practices exacerbating favoritism towards men is a major contributor to gender inequality in developing countries. Women become entrepreneurs for two reasons: out of choice or need. Despite the fact that women's participation in the workforce today reflects clear improvement, some studies found that women still have difficulty advancing their careers and, in particular, finding role models for effective managerial leadership. The purpose of this study is to explore factors affecting Egyptian women entrepreneurs’ success. This work is exploratory, as it follows a qualitative approach. The authors conducted eleven in-depth interviews with Egyptian women entrepreneurs from different sectors. The suggested conceptual framework presents several factors that affect the success of women entrepreneurs in Egypt, with different levels: personal factors (entrepreneurial mindset: opportunity recognition and attributes of leadership: motivation and passion, team builder), social support factors (friends & family support and family background and attitudinal drivers) and environmental factors (the use of social media and technology, the integration of sustainable environmental aspects into business strategy and the Egyptian entrepreneurial ecosystem). This study serves as a foundation for further research, analysis, and discussion of the interwind subjects of women, entrepreneurship, and leadership.

Leadership Styles and Total Quality Management (TQM) Implementation: Competitor Orientation and Inter-Functional Coordination as Mediators

Desalegn Urgessa Yadeta; Matiwos Ensermu Jaleta; Mesfin Workineh Melese

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 287-306
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60331

This paper examines the mediating role of competitor orientation and inter-functional coordination between leadership styles and Total Quality Management (TQM) implementation. The empirical data for this study were drawn from a survey of 203 leaders from manufacturing and service firms in Addis Ababa and its surrounding cities to examine the reliability and validity of the independent constructs; mediating constructs (i.e., competitor orientation and inter-functional coordination); and implementation of TQM. The data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to examine the mediating role of competitor orientation and inter-functional coordination between leadership styles and the implementation of TQM. The result of this study revealed that servant and transactional leadership did have a positive and direct effect on the implementation of TQM, while the relationships were further positively mediated by inter-functional coordination for the servant leadership-TQM relationship and negatively mediated by competitor orientation for the transactional leadership-TQM relationship. On the other hand, transformational leadership had only a positive and indirect effect on implementing TQM through competitor orientation and inter-functional coordination. Our sample companies came from different industries (both manufacturing and service sectors). Hence, future studies could consider samples from manufacturing and service sectors independently to control and reduce the bias resulting from industry differences. The results can be beneficial for the current organizational leaders to achieve appropriate leadership styles and understand the mediating role of competitor orientation and inter- functional coordination between leadership styles and the implementation of TQM.

A Dual-Process Account of Major Social Constructs of Motivation: Implications for Leadership Scholarship

Mohammad Zarei; Abdallah Issahaka

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 253-273
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60329

There is inconsistency in positioning general motivation constructs within the broader leadership research. The main purpose of the current study was to review major social constructs of motivation applied in leadership studies and then empirically investigate their associations. Data was collected using self-reported measures from 316 business students to test our theoretical models. Properties of the models, including validity and common method bias, were assessed and controlled before hypothesis testing using variance-based structural equation modeling. This study offers several original contributions. First, reviewing the literature, we identify major social constructs of motivation central to leadership studies including self-efficacy, self-regulation, causal attributions, goal orientation, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Second, applying the regulatory focus perspective, we offer a new taxonomy of the constructs (promotional vs. preventive). Third, using empirical data, we establish a nomological network amongst the six social constructs of motivation. The study yielded an integrative theory of motivation by establishing a network of cause-and-effect amongst six popular social constructs of motivation in leadership research. Two complementary (promotional vs. preventive) models of motivation were developed to predict dimensions of creative outcome (idea generation and exploration). Forth, building on the findings, we provide early evidence for further decomposition of general self-efficacy constructs into “promotional self-efficacy” vs. “preventive self-efficacy”. Implications of the findings for leadership research were also discussed.

Effects of Fatherhood on Leadership Behaviour of Managers

Bernhard Stellner

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 367-384
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60598

Becoming a father is a major life event for men and is accompanied by new role expectations and behavioural changes. While earlier research focused on the conflictual facets, more recent work-family enrichment theory emphasises the positive aspects of multiple roles. Previous quantitative and qualitative research has found that parenthood positively influences overall leadership and management behaviour at work. Our quantitative study uses a more granular definition of leadership behaviour with data from 157 male managers from Central Europe collected with a web-based survey. We find that 14 out of 15 transformational leadership behaviours (TLB) improve significantly with fatherhood. The individual behaviours supporting, recognizing, and developing progress the most. Only networking remains unaffected. Parental role enrichment outweighs conflict, and the resulting net effect correlates strongly with TLB. Also, parental role commitment and job level (position and number of subordinates) have a positive effect on TLB improvement. Parental role commitment and net enrichment show strong multicollinearity. Despite the positive effects of fatherhood on TLB in general, these decrease as the number of children increases, contradicting the intuition that "the more, the better". The findings should be considered in both managerial theory and practice as they concern the majority of men in leadership positions.

Fourth Industrial Leadership Index (4IRLI) for Manufacturing Companies in Malaysia

Salina Daud; Wan Noordiana Wan Hanafi; Jegatheesan Rajadurai; Nurhidayah Mohamed Othman

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 421-439
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60607

Industry 4.0 affects all business areas as companies need both virtual and physical structures to enable collaboration between machines, devices, and people, as well as rapid adaptation along the value chain. A strong leader will help the smooth execution of Industry 4.0. This study aims to capture the indicators that will assist in designing the Fourth Industrial Leadership Index (4IRLI) in the manufacturing sector. The data collection for this study includes a focus group discussion, in-depth interview, an expert opinion interview, and a survey. Based on experts’ comments and recommendations, the questionnaire was modified to remove vague statements, redundant terms and improve the flow and structure of the questions. The Partial Least Square (PLS) approach is used to analyse the collected data. The Complexity Leadership theory is used as an underlying theory in the study. This study will produce a 4IRLI for manufacturing companies highly involved with the industrial revolution. In doing so, this study will be supporting government initiatives to transform the manufacturing industry into Industry 4.0. This is in line with the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals, which aim to build resilient infrastructure, promote sustainable industrialisation, foster innovation, and ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns. 

Equine-Assisted Experiential Learning on Leadership Development

Elif Bilginoğlu

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue Special Issue 2021, Pages 3-16
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60532

In today’s fast-paced business world, where there is a need to develop divergent thinking and a wider range of skills, organizations seek original ways to be successful. Accordingly, leadership development has seen several uncommon approaches. Equine-assisted learning programs which involve innovative, underutilized, and motivating techniques and strategies, provide a dynamic process of building and developing leadership skills through horse-human interactions. In this paper, after the history of horse-human relationships and interactions are examined, a literature review is conducted on developing research and using equine-assisted leadership development programs. Although the extant research shows that equine-assisted leadership development programs promote skills critical to being an influential leader, the present paper provides an insight into equine-assisted experiential learning on leadership development, provides an overview on what happens in a typical equine-assisted experiential learning session, and suggests practical implications for researchers and organizations.

An Evaluation of How Educators in Virtual Teams Perceive Charismatic Leadership During the COVID-19 Crisis

Latifa Attieha; Omar Zouhairy

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 155-170
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60523

Leadership constituted a topic of high interest for researchers and practitioners alike for years. Numerous studies have focused on leadership styles, particularly charismatic leadership, as an antecedent to organizational achievements. However, most researchers neglected to consider the followers’ perception of their leader’s performance. Understanding and accommodating the needs of the followers is essential to the leader’s success. The current study investigates the influence of charismatic leaders on dispersed teams in non-vocational educational institutions in Lebanon. This quantitative study utilized two structured questionnaires to investigate the charismatic leadership during the COVID-19 crisis from the perspective of educators who work in virtual teams. Five hypotheses on the effect of crisis-bound charismatic leadership on distant educational teams were tested. The relation between the number of years of experience and charisma was not explored since the majority of respondents fell in the category of five years or more at the institution. A total of seventy-seven respondents completed the survey online. Statistical analysis, using the software SPSS-23, showed that neither gender nor level of education affected the followers’ perception of charismatic leadership during crises. Nonetheless, the study findings showed a strong positive correlation between charismatic leadership and the ability to lead in a crisis, concluding that charismatic leaders emerge in times of stress

Identifying Factors Influencing Visionary Leadership: An Empirical Evidence from Thai Manufacturing Industry

Walailak Atthirawong; Kaseam Bunnoiko; Wariya Panprung

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 39-53
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60516

Supply chain consists of all integrated activities that bring products to markets in the right
time, at the right place while creating value added in order to satisfy customers. The
performance of all activities in the supply chain requires the cooperation and coordination of
complex processes across all members in organizations. Successful supply chain
management relies on great leaders, who can communicate with their supply chain members
and encourage feedback systems to improve the workplace environment. The leaders have
the principal goal of making use of modern, scientific, technical and innovative methods in
the implementation of tasks and activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate
key factors affecting visionary leadership in the context of Thai manufacturing industry.
Data were collected using survey questionnaires administered to supply chain managers in
each manufacturing company located in industrial estates across the country. A total of 500
valid questionnaires were received and analyzed using structural equation modeling. The
results revealed that communication skill had the highest impact on visionary leadership,
followed by organization climate and creativity. The study outcome could be to the benefit
of managers, who strive to generate visionary leadership and realize how important it is to
incorporate communication skills as one of the most powerful instruments to improve

Transparency of the Concepts of Directing and Leadership in Organizational Leadership Theory based on Critical Hermeneutics Theory

Shalaleh Kameli; Shahram Mirzaei Daryani; Mohammad Kheirandish; Majid Ahmadlou

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2020, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 105-122
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60499

Some researchers consider leadership and directing to be equivalent as much as they use them interchangeably. According to the study of the historical course done in this research, this issue has been seen more than ever in recent texts. In this study, the critical hermeneutics of Prasad’s (2005) four-stage model was used. In the first stage, the data was collected from books, and papers related to organizational leadership theory. To this end, 61 definitions of organizational leadership and eight definitions of directing have been collected from the viewpoint of management experts. Ambiguities were raised in the form of questions about the intentions of the authors of the relevant texts. In the second stage, layers of texts were interpreted, and themes and concepts were extracted. In the third stage, to close the hermeneutic cycle, a narrative case was used, which is the personal experience of an organizational leader of the distinction between leadership and directing. The final stage was suggested to the researchers not to consider the words ‘leadership’ and ‘directing’ equivalent or interchangeable. Directing is a part of leadership that is more or less applied depending on the type of leadership style. It is also recommended for experts in marketing, business and economics to use the alternative terms market pioneer and industry director instead of the words market leader and industry leader because obedience to other organizations may be due to duty not influence or follow-up.

Leadership of Xi Jinping behind Unstoppable Sustainable Economic Growth of China

Bablu Kumar Dhar; Mahazan Mutalib

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2020, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 39-47
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60489

Xi Jinping's new era of socialist economic thought, rooted in the great practice of China's economic construction, systematically explains the issue of China's economic development and reform, and clearly answers the important questions of how the economic situation is to be judged, how to judge the development stage, how to determine the development goals, and how to do economic work. Xi Jinping's new era of the socialist economy with Chinese characteristics, system integrity, broad depth, logic and strict, each aspect of the discourse has a creative and vital point of view, forward-looking strategic deployment and "four beams and eight pillars" of the key initiatives. Combining the in-depth study of Xi Jinping's new era socialist ideology with Chinese characteristics and the spirit of the Party's 19th National Congress, this paper tries to sort out Xi Jinping's new era socialist economic thought with Chinese characteristics from five aspects, such as direction theory, goal theory, epistemology, strategy theory, and bottom-line theory.

The Leadership Process in Teacher Education: A Case Study at the University of Lisbon

Ana Luísa Rodrigues

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2019, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 22-37
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60485

The leadership and pedagogical supervision process in teacher education is a crucial issue for the training pedagogical quality and teachers’ professional development. The relationship that is necessary to establish between the Higher Education Institution and the Cooperating Schools where the supervised pedagogical practice is carried out is crucial. In this study we analyze this process of shared leadership and supervision, understanding this relationship from a perspective of effective collaboration, reflexivity and sharing of practices between various contributors – the preservice teacher, the university professor and the mentor teacher. Based on this premise, we shall analyze the importance of leadership in an educational context and the role of supervision for the improvement of organizational and teaching-learning situations and experiences. The aim of this study is to promote autonomy and shared interaction, contributing to professional development and knowledge co-construction. In methodological terms, this is a case study, within the scope of the Master in Teaching of Economics and Accounting at the Institute of Education, University of Lisbon, the only master’s degree in Portugal that provides a professional qualification for teaching in secondary education in the area of Economics and Accounting. This study intends to obtain a characterization of the leadership and supervision process developed, to reflect on appropriate leadership theories in educational context and to outline the main functions of the mentor teacher as a fundamental part of the collaborative supervision process, framed in the current model of teacher training in Portugal.

A Cross-cultural Analysis of Management Approaches in Comparison to Turkish and Swiss Companies

Erdem Erciyes

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2019, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60483

This research investigates management approaches though a cross-cultural analysis of both Turkish and Swiss companies. A qualitative and exploratory research method was employed. Organizational culture, leadership and motivation have been investigated separately in the research. This approach provided a better understanding for highlighting different parts of both subjects and showed how they were related to each other. While the human oriented leadership types and management approach are beginning to gain popularity in Turkish companies, democratic and participatory types of leadership are more common in Swiss companies. Likewise, McClelland’s need of achievement and Maslow’s need of esteem are the most popular motivational preferences in Turkish companies. On the other hand, Swiss managers prefer McClelland’s human motivation theory in praxis. In addition, the findings of the research indicate that managerial awareness about different nationalities should be increased in both Turkish and Swiss companies. Managers who have high cultural intelligence should be employed and cultural sensitivity should be embedded into corporate culture of the companies. The findings of this research do not present different management systems or develop scientific road maps for dealing with various cultures, however, it emphasizes the importance of showing managerial awareness about different nationalities in the work environment.

Leadership Styles of Managers from the Perspective of Gender

Lucia Zbihlejová; Miroslav Frankovský; Zuzana Birknerová

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2018, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 340-347
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60216

The main objective of the study is to find out whether there are any statistically significant differences in the assessment of the selected leadership attributes between managers from the perspective of gender. A differential analysis was conducted on the sample of 129 respondents (55 male managers – 42.6% and 74 female managers – 57.4%) on the basis of the data collected by means of two methodologies for detecting the leadership behavior attributes: Managerial Grid (Blake and Mouton, 1964) and the new original methodology PALEQ (Paternalistic Leadership Questionnaire). The results of the analyses confirmed the existence of statistically significant differences between male and female managers in assessing the individual leadership attributes. Based on these results, it can be concluded that in terms of the assessment of leadership behavior, male managers use the authoritarian forms of leadership more extensively, whereas female managers are more oriented at the lenient, clement leadership behavior, as compared to the male managers.

Leadership 4.0: Digital Leaders in the Age of Industry 4.0

Birgit Oberer; Alptekin Erkollar

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2018, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 404-412
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60332

Industry 4.0 stands for ‘fourth industrial revolution and is a term referring to rapid transformations in the design, production, implementation, operation, and service of manufacturing systems, products, and components. To get the most out of Industry 4.0 technologies, organizations will have to heavily invest in building capabilities in the following dimensions: data and connectivity, analytics and intelligence, conversion to the physical world, and human-machine interaction. In this study, the human dimension of industry 4.0 has priority, by analyzing behavioral leadership theories that focus on the study of the specific behaviors of a leader (the leader behavior is the predictor of his leadership influences and is the best determinant of his leadership success). A two dimensional 4.0 leadership style matrix was developed (x-axis: innovation/technology concern; y-axis: people concern). The results of this study revealed that the developed industry 4.0 leadership style might have the dimensions of first-year students, social, technological or digital, where the 4.0 digital leader forms the highest reachable level in the 4.0 leadership matrix.

Leadership and Organization for the Companies in the Process of Industry 4.0 Transformation

Özlem Akçay Kasapoglu

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2018, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 300-308
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60217

The global effect of disruptive technology has brought about huge productivity improvements in manufacturing. The changing and differentiated demand of the customers pushed the industry to improve their production systems in the Industry 4.0 concept for being more responsive to the changing conditions. The increased knowledge level on the data science made the data analytics possible and more meaningful. Industry 4.0 is the common name used to describe the current trend towards a fully connected and automated manufacturing system, or Smart Factory. All production decisions are optimized based on real time information from a fully integrated and linked set of equipment and people. There is an urgency in the manufacturing companies to change their technology, knowledge, and he workforce skills for the Industry 4.0 understanding in order to stay competitive. The transformation process to the Industry 4.0 concept is a strategic decision and it requires leadership to deploy the strategy all through the organization by training from the top to the bottom of the organization.

A Critical Review of Implicit Leadership Theory on the Validity of Organizational Actor-National Culture Fitness

Alperen Öztürk; M. Abdülkadir Varoglu; Demet Varoglu

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2017, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 456-469
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2017.60357

According to implicit leadership literature, actor-national culture fitness is a necessity to be labeled as a leader. However, studies which focus on implicit leadership theory and national culture have some contradictory findings. A systematic review of these studies reveals that participants could score high on opposite implicit leadership values and a sufficient theoretical explanation for these surprising results have not been given so far. This paper argues that showing full harmony with the cultural expectations of followers is not a necessity to be seen as a leader. Actors who can fill the cultural gap with their different cultural values can also be labeled as leaders. This paper contends that organizational actors with cultural values differing from those of the followers with certain cultural orientations are more likely to be labeled as leaders. People from individualistic societies may be more prone to label ‘team-oriented leadership’ dimension as their outstanding leadership prototype whereas people from masculine societies may show ‘humane oriented leadership’ as their outstanding leadership prototype.

Assessment of Leadership for Innovation and Perceived Organizational Innovativeness: Differences between Self-Reported Individual and Social Creativity

Per Eisele

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2017, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 470-480
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2017.60326

The aim of the present study was to investigate how employees assess innovation and leadership and to know if there was a difference between individual and social creativity in these assessments. In a private firm within the creative industry, employees (N=153) assessed organizational innovativeness and leadership for innovation. The perceived organizational innovativeness scale (PORGI) and a new leadership for innovation scale (LIS) were used. Independent variables were self-report measurements of individual creativity and social creativity. Analysis indicates that the company is perceived as innovative but the leaders score low on leadership for innovation. Socially creative employees view their workplace as less innovative than individually creative people and is also more negative in the assessment of their leader’s ability to facilitate innovation. Notably, social creativity correlated negatively with leadership for innovation and perceived organizational innovativeness.

A guide on taking the leadership of your life

Tobias Ebbing; Arne Petermann

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2017, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 296-307
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2017.60390

Having control over your life requires selected modern and classical concepts of leadership and tranquillity to assist you in analysing and approaching different situations in life and business. Based on Heifetz (1994) a method of building a distant view on events is introduced to enable more rational decision-making. A theory of contextual awareness is developed based on classical philosophies. Responsibilities in a certain context are identified and classified in order to help you understand the effects of your actions. For proper interaction with the own context, a model of integrity based on Erhard, Jensen, and Zaffron (2014) is suggested. Finally, a selection of sources for strength and courage are introduced to lead us a happy and meaningful life constantly. This paper should serve as an expandable framework for the application of inspired and reflected theories on leadership in the reader’s life. Therefore, the present study concludes with recapitulating questions to support putting theories into action and applying the presented instruments.