Volume 11, Issue 1, Winter 2022


Do Paradoxical Virtual Leadership and Emotional Intelligence have Relationships? In Particular from Technology Dependence, Geographical Dispersion, and Human Capital Tensions

Muluken Ayalew; Zerihun Ayenew

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 1-25
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60616

This study intended to investigate issues on the relationship between paradoxical virtual leadership and emotional intelligence; accordingly, two main questions were addressed; the first one was, investigating what is known and unknown about the concept of paradoxical virtual leadership; and the second question was to describe the relationship between paradoxical virtual leadership and emotional intelligence, in the existing literature. In this regard, methodologically, the study was employed narrative review strategy and 38 relevant studies were selected from various research databases, to answer the raised questions shown earlier. And also, the findings of the studies presented descriptively using content analysis method. As the findings of this study revealed that the major focuses of the previous studies were limited to transformational leadership style, emotional intelligence, virtual teams, and information communication and technology. This shows sufficient studies were not yet conducted on the relationship of virtual leader’s (except transformational leadership style) and emotional intelligence from the paradoxical tensions such as geographical dispersion and human capital. Therefore, it is recommended to employee Purvanova and Kenda’s model and Goleman’s model in combination, to assess their relationships in a comprehensive manner.       

Followership in Leadership Process and Organizational Performance: A Review of Literature

Davies M. Ndonye

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 26-43
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60617

Extant literature on the construct of leadership process has laid a lot of emphasis on the characteristics and behaviors of the individual leader. The attention paid on followership in the process and its role in realizing organizational outcomes is limited. This paper specifically examined through systematic literature review the twin elements of the leadership process: influence and motivation; and how leaders and followers enact them among themselves for enhanced organizational performance. The review involved search of relevant literature in published books and peer reviewed articles in various databases including Google Scholar, JSTOR, Sage, Emerald, ProQuest, EBSCO, and Science Direct. In total, 25 published works and 57 journal articles were reviewed in the study. Scholars have already linked leadership with organizational performance but have overly been biased in the scope of focus on the leadership process dimension. From the review of the extant conceptual, theoretical, and empirical literature, this study raised various issues presenting a case for a new conceptual model to further the existing understanding on leadership process and organizational performance. An integrated conceptual framework linking leadership process and organizational performance considering the critical role of followership and organizational contexts is proposed. The emerging theoretical propositions upon which future research can be conducted for practical purposes are discussed.

Servant Leadership as Impetus for Teachers' Organisational Citizenship and In-role Behaviours: The Mediation of Felt Obligation

Aneel Kumar; Tayabba Gul Pathan; Hira Rani Shaikh

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 44-54
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60618

Based on the premises of social exchange theory, this study examined servant leadership as an impetus for teachers’ organisational citizenship and in-role behaviours through the mediation of felt obligation. Although several studies have been conducted to investigate the relationship between servant leadership and employees’ performance behaviours, it is unclear why servant leadership would significantly induces employees’ performance behaviours. Data were collected from the teachers working in franchise schools. This study collected primary data using a 5-point Likert survey questionnaire (N=201), ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. A random sampling technique was applied. Results showed that servant leadership is positively associated with teachers’ organisational citizenship behaviour and in-role behaviour. The effect of servant leadership was more on organisational citizenship than in-role behaviour.  Further, felt obligation was found as a bridge thatmediates the relationship between servant leadership and both behaviours. However, like the total effect, the indirect effect of servant leadership was found more on organisational citizenship than in-role behaviour. Overall, based on the social exchange theory, this study offers a mechanism that how the principals of the schools, following the premises of servant leadership theory, induce the teachers through a sense of felt obligation to reciprocate by displaying positive work behaviours.

Creating Identity Development Spaces for Leaders in Higher Education

Sapna Vyas Thwaite

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 55-70
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60619

The current research study seeks to explore leaders’ processes of identity making within a higher education context as well as identify salient features of a higher education context that can best support leadership development. It is framed with the premise that cultivating one’s professional identity as a leader is a developmental process that is integrally connected to the sociocultural context. Different organizational contexts vary in terms of the nature and scope of what they can offer leaders as they shape their professional identities. The participants were seven higher education administrators, ranging from assistant deans to deans, from four public midwestern universities. A grounded theory methodological approach was used through individual interviews with each participant to explore the following two research questions: 1) What are the core elements that higher education leaders consider to be central to their senses of leadership identity? and 2) What do higher education leaders believe are the qualities of an organizational context that stimulate and support identity work and professional development related to leadership? The study’s findings revealed that supporting and advocating for others, keeping core values and identity at the center of one’s work, and embracing vulnerability were key themes in the interviews. Implications for the professional development and training of leaders in higher education are discussed.

Leadership Development Assessment Center: A Review on Advantages and Disadvantages for Developing Leadership Behavioral Competencies

Naghi Radi Afsouran; George C Thornton III; Morteza Charkhabi

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 71-88
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60620

This study aims to introduce Leadership Development Assessment Center (LDAC) as a systematic approach for training and developing leadership behavioral competencies of organizational leaders. The four crucial elements of LDAC including needs assessment, design, implementation, and evaluating the effectiveness are presented and discussed. A literature review was performed to identify, define, and classify the theoretical concepts and implementation processes of LDAC. Three databases of Science Direct, PubMed, and Google Scholar were used to collect data over the past two decades. LDAC flexibly explores the real needs of leaders in their current position, contributes to the content of training programs based on the needs, and provides tractable and visible measures to assess and develop the leadership behavioral competencies in leaders. Although LDAC is a costly and time-consuming model that requires more studies to justify its wide application, the advantages of LDAC can urge organizational developers to apply it. As an advantage, LDAC provides the main foundation to assess and develop leadership behavioral competencies through applying a more feasible and systematic procedure that fosters behaviorally competent leaders.

Definition, Operationalisation, and Measurement of Leadership Strategy: Application in the Banking Sector in Kenya

Eltigani Ahmed; James Kilika; Clare Gakenia

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 89-111
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60621

This paper aimed to define, operationalise, and generate measures of leadership strategy that can inform future empirical enquiry and analysis. In addition, the paper aimed to provide a conceptualisation of the notion of leadership strategy, situating the concept within the broader leadership strategy literature from which a working definition of leadership strategy is coined. From the definition, leadership strategy was then operationalised by developing a set of items that can be used to measure it. The items were subsequently subjected to empirical evaluation and testing within the context of the banking sector in Kenya. Using SmartPLS software, Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were performed on questionnaire data collected online from 184 senior managers of 12 banks listed in the Nairobi Securities Exchange. The factors or indicators were validated with high scores of exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. All factors/indicators were validated and found to be consistently above theoretical thresholds. The study proposed an inventory for measuring leadership strategy using 24 Likert-scale items based on the empirical results. It is worth mentioning that while the items were validated in the banking sector context, each item is a generic measure of the corresponding factors and can be adapted for use in other research contexts. The paper established an empirical lead towards the proposition of an inventory for the construct of leadership strategy.

Impact of Self-sacrificial Leadership on Organizational Engagement: A Psychological Mechanism of Job Satisfaction

Saeed Turki Alshahrani

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 112-126
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60622

Drawing on social cognitive theory, this paper examines the relationships between self-sacrificial leadership, job satisfaction, and organizational engagement. This study proposes that job satisfaction serves as a psychological mechanism reflecting how Self-sacrificial Leadership (SSL) influences organizational engagement. This study defines SSL in terms of a leader’s willingness to prioritize the interests of their employees ahead of their own interests and to bear any costs associated with such behavior. The findings of the empirical data, collected through self-reporting questionnaires taken from a sample of 176 employees working in the banking sector in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, demonstrate that self-sacrificial leadership does positively impact both job satisfaction and organizational engagement. The results further suggest that the link between self-sacrificial leadership and organizational engagement is mediated by job satisfaction. In light of the positive and significant relationships shown to exist between these constructs, this study has valuable implications for leadership and employee behavioral management within the banking and finance industry. Specifically, the results illustrate how SSL as a leadership approach may outperform traditional leadership styles in several ways. We would further suggest that these findings may also be extrapolated to other industries in order to benefit from the implementation of self-sacrificial leadership to improve organizational outcomes.