Volume 11, Issue 3, Summer 2022

A Dual-Process Account of Major Social Constructs of Motivation: Implications for Leadership Scholarship

Mohammad Zarei; Abdallah Issahaka

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 253-273
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60329

There is inconsistency in positioning general motivation constructs within the broader leadership research. The main purpose of the current study was to review major social constructs of motivation applied in leadership studies and then empirically investigate their associations. Data was collected using self-reported measures from 316 business students to test our theoretical models. Properties of the models, including validity and common method bias, were assessed and controlled before hypothesis testing using variance-based structural equation modeling. This study offers several original contributions. First, reviewing the literature, we identify major social constructs of motivation central to leadership studies including self-efficacy, self-regulation, causal attributions, goal orientation, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Second, applying the regulatory focus perspective, we offer a new taxonomy of the constructs (promotional vs. preventive). Third, using empirical data, we establish a nomological network amongst the six social constructs of motivation. The study yielded an integrative theory of motivation by establishing a network of cause-and-effect amongst six popular social constructs of motivation in leadership research. Two complementary (promotional vs. preventive) models of motivation were developed to predict dimensions of creative outcome (idea generation and exploration). Forth, building on the findings, we provide early evidence for further decomposition of general self-efficacy constructs into “promotional self-efficacy” vs. “preventive self-efficacy”. Implications of the findings for leadership research were also discussed.

Identification and Assessment of Human Manipulation in the Work Environment

Anna Tomkova; Barbara Nicole Čigarská

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 274-286
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60330

This article aims to provide an overview of knowledge related to the complexity of manipulation in the work environment and focus on the specification of the issue. The attributes of manipulation in the work environment were analyzed based on the degree of perception of social intelligence factors, the level of manipulation, and the tendency to distrust others. The aim of the research was to examine statistically significant associations between the number of years of service and
the occurrence of manipulation in work. The research was carried out via MPS and MESI methodologies. The research sample (N = 183) comprised working students and employees from the private and public spheres from various work areas in Slovakia. In conclusion, no statistically significant associations existed between the number of worked years and manipulation at the workplace. Statistically, significant gender differences were documented in men within the attributes of manipulation. Higher average values ​​for attributes of empathy, social irritability, and mistrust were found in women.

Leadership Styles and Total Quality Management (TQM) Implementation: Competitor Orientation and Inter-Functional Coordination as Mediators

Desalegn Urgessa Yadeta; Matiwos Ensermu Jaleta; Mesfin Workineh Melese

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 287-306
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60331

This paper examines the mediating role of competitor orientation and inter-functional coordination between leadership styles and Total Quality Management (TQM) implementation. The empirical data for this study were drawn from a survey of 203 leaders from manufacturing and service firms in Addis Ababa and its surrounding cities to examine the reliability and validity of the independent constructs; mediating constructs (i.e., competitor orientation and inter-functional coordination); and implementation of TQM. The data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to examine the mediating role of competitor orientation and inter-functional coordination between leadership styles and the implementation of TQM. The result of this study revealed that servant and transactional leadership did have a positive and direct effect on the implementation of TQM, while the relationships were further positively mediated by inter-functional coordination for the servant leadership-TQM relationship and negatively mediated by competitor orientation for the transactional leadership-TQM relationship. On the other hand, transformational leadership had only a positive and indirect effect on implementing TQM through competitor orientation and inter-functional coordination. Our sample companies came from different industries (both manufacturing and service sectors). Hence, future studies could consider samples from manufacturing and service sectors independently to control and reduce the bias resulting from industry differences. The results can be beneficial for the current organizational leaders to achieve appropriate leadership styles and understand the mediating role of competitor orientation and inter- functional coordination between leadership styles and the implementation of TQM.

Do Generative Leadership and Digital Literacy of Executive Management Help Flourishing Micro and Small Business Digital Maturity?

Büşra Alma Çallı; Mehtap Özşahin; Erman Coşkun; Ahmet Rıfat Arık

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 307-332
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60332

Today, every firm and organization must digitally transform in order to survive and deal with increasing competition and dynamic market conditions. Digital transformation is not easy to achieve, and many factors play an important role in the successful digital transformation of firms. Leaders' leadership styles and characteristics play a crucial role in digital transformation. This study examines the effects of generative leadership and digital literacy of executive management on the digital maturity of micro and small firms based on the Upper Echelons Theory. Sub-dimensions of digital maturity are also considered and searched to provide a more detailed analysis.  The research utilized a survey method and was conducted with 121 upper, middle, and first-line managers of 93 micro and small-size firms operating in the Marmara Region of Turkey. Frequency, factor, regression, and validity and reliability analyses through the SPSS package program were used. The results are two folds. First, generative leadership and digital literacy of executive management help flourish digital maturity when searched independently. Second, the study results indicate that the digital literacy of executive managers has a mediating effect on the relationship between generative leadership and digital maturity. Furthermore, the study proves the mediating effect on digital maturity's technological, strategic, and cultural maturity sub-dimensions.  With these findings in micro and small businesses, the study comprehensively contributes to the current knowledge in this domain.

Authentic Leadership and Societal Transformation: A Review of Literature

Henry Samwel Muguna

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 333-356
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60333

The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the literature on authentic leadership and societal transformation.  The paper presents authentic leadership as the key player in the transformation of society.  Society has suffered due to many financial and moral scandals, corruption, nepotism, leadership that has no place for followers, and lack of transparency.  The paper proposes a new theoretical model to show how the newly discovered constructs interconnect and relate to one another.  The methodology employed in this article is the review of extant conceptual, theoretical, and empirical literature to build a case for a theoretical model that links up authentic leadership and societal transformation to cause a change in society.  The study identifies five main constructs that positively relate to one another and can provide the required leadership for societal transformation.  The five constructs include authentic leadership, trigger events, developmental readiness, core positive psychological resources, and societal transformation.  The findings showed that authentic leadership has positive effects on societal transformation.  The mediation role of the core positive psychological resources variable is discussed.  In addition, the moderating role of developmental readiness is discussed.  This study will be important in providing knowledge in regard to the effect of authentic leadership on societal transformation. Finally, the recommendation for future empirical studies is given.

Green Human Resource Management: A Systematic Literature Review and Future Research Directions

Zerihun Ayenew Birbirsa; Muluken Ayalew Worku

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 357-383
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60334

This study addressed three basic questions regarding GHRM: the first - which green human resources management practices have or have not obtained better attention in organizations?; the second question - what are the contributing factors to the effective implementation of green human resource management in organizations? And the third - what are the major barriers to the practical implementation of green human resource practices in organizations? The research employed a systematic review strategy for the questions indicated above. In this respect, clear inclusion and exclusion criteria were employed to select 51 relevant articles from 417 GHRM articles obtained from various databases for analysis purposes. In addition, other research methods were used in the study, such as the collected data being analyzed via content analysis and presented descriptively using descriptive research design. The study results indicated that selection and requirement, training and development, and discipline management GHRM practices have obtained better attention in organizations; on the contrary, socialization, participation and working relationships, and retention practices acquired the least attention and still not yet getting sufficient emphasis. With regard to effective factors to implement GHRM, social responsibility, green missions, strategies, goals and policies, citizenship behavior, financial and non-financial motivation, green training, and teamwork are playing major roles; conversely, lack of knowledge and awareness, lack of training/technical support, lack of organizational leadership support, lack of a comprehensive plan to implement green human resource management, and lack of green culture, are the major barriers.