Volume 11, Issue 4, Autumn 2022

Investigating the Effect of Trust, Motivation, and Reward on the Desire to Share Knowledge through Social Networks by Shiraz University of Medical Sciences Staff

Haleh Amiri; Forough Rahimi; Ali Biranvand

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue 4, Pages 384-406
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60341

This study investigated the effect of trust, motivation, and reward on the willingness to share knowledge on social networks by the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS) staff. The instrument of the present study was a researcher-made questionnaire in which formal-content validity was confirmed, and its reliability, according to Cranach's alpha coefficient, was equal to .90. The study's statistical population was 27506, including employees and faculty members, according to the Krejcie and Morgan table, the sample size was 379. The results showed that the importance of knowledge sharing among employees and commitment to the university were two effective components of intrinsic motivation. Support of university administrators for knowledge sharing and improving the status of social pages (38.8%) through knowledge sharing were two effective components of external motivation for employee knowledge sharing in social networks. "Fear of employees being replaced" and "fear of losing a job" were two negative and very weak components of the trust variable on knowledge sharing. "Financial incentives" and "job promotion" were among the influential components of the reward variable, which "greatly" affected the sharing of knowledge in social networks. Paying more attention to evaluating the performance of employees and financial rewards by managers can be effective in sharing knowledge and motivation.

A Study on Digital Leadership Scale Adaptation

Onur Oktaysoy; Ethem Topcuoglu; Erdogan Kaygin

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue 4, Pages 407-425
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60342

In recent years, the speed of digitalisation in nearly all fields has led organizations to actively use digital tools, practice working methods that are compatible with daily requirements, and adjust themselves to the process compositionally. The concept of digital leadership can be defined as the result of this necessity. Digital leaders focus on basic dynamics of the present world, can achieve digital transformation, and equate learning culture and the structure of an organization with digital standards. In this respect, to measure digital leadership understanding in Turkey, the present study adapted the scale, developed by Zeike et al. (2019) to Turkish and analyzed its reliability and validity.  In the study, the first test was conducted with 135 teachers working in Kars, while the second test was conducted with 334 academicians. The adaptation of the scale into Turkish was achieved in the research by making the analyses of normality, correlation, and exploratory factor analysis through the SPSS program and by making confirmatory factor analyses through the AMOS program. The reliability and validity of the scale obtained were achieved by gathering it under a single dimension.

Managing Workforce Diversity and Inclusion: A Critical Review and Future Directions

Christina Morfaki; Alexandra Morfaki

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue 4, Pages 426-443
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60343

Fundamental worldwide economic, socio-demographic, and regulatory shifts are largely responsible for the spike in interest in the topic of Diversity and Inclusion (D&I) in the workplace. Existing research indicates that the focus on workforce diversity and inclusion has attained worldwide currency among HR managers and organizational leaders. However, its enactment remains challenging, partly as its conceptual operationalization is plagued by national, cultural, institutional, and interpersonal barriers. Moreover, there appears to be a gap between the rhetoric of D&I and the idiosyncrasies of its implementation. This gap should be bridged to foster D&I and embed it in the organizational system. To achieve this, we argue that organizations are expected to foster the development of diverse communities of practice; these communities could reshape corporate policies and practices, promote meaningful interactions, serve to develop a shared identity that will challenge entrenched beliefs, and create new artifacts and working cultures. The latter could lead to a restructure of current organizational structures and a reformation of tokenistic joint missions and values. This critical review will assess and highlight recent advancements in the D&I management literature while presenting a broader perspective on the practices at the heart of the field. The conclusion of the study considers potential future avenues for D&I management research and practice.

Factors Affecting the Success of Women Entrepreneurs in Egypt

Miriam Abdelwahid; Hebatalla Kaoud

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue 4, Pages 444-461
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60344

Women's entrepreneurship is still a topic of interest on a global scale. According to studies by many scholars, the rate of female entrepreneurship activities and initiatives is considerably lower than those of men, especially in countries experiencing high gender inequality. The predominance of cultural practices exacerbating favoritism towards men is a major contributor to gender inequality in developing countries. Women become entrepreneurs for two reasons: out of choice or need. Despite the fact that women's participation in the workforce today reflects clear improvement, some studies found that women still have difficulty advancing their careers and, in particular, finding role models for effective managerial leadership. The purpose of this study is to explore factors affecting Egyptian women entrepreneurs’ success. This work is exploratory, as it follows a qualitative approach. The authors conducted eleven in-depth interviews with Egyptian women entrepreneurs from different sectors. The suggested conceptual framework presents several factors that affect the success of women entrepreneurs in Egypt, with different levels: personal factors (entrepreneurial mindset: opportunity recognition and attributes of leadership: motivation and passion, team builder), social support factors (friends & family support and family background and attitudinal drivers) and environmental factors (the use of social media and technology, the integration of sustainable environmental aspects into business strategy and the Egyptian entrepreneurial ecosystem). This study serves as a foundation for further research, analysis, and discussion of the interwind subjects of women, entrepreneurship, and leadership.

Workplace Arrogance, Need for Power, and Counterproductive Work Behaviors in Corporate Managers: The Mediating Role of Humility

Muhammad Zohaib Khan; Iffat Batool

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue 4, Pages 462-482
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60345

The study investigated the relationship between workplace arrogance, the need for power, and Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB) in corporate managers. The study was carried out by following the correlational research design. The sample of N = 260 corporate managers (males = 181, females = 79), with an age range from 30 years to 55 years (M = 41.03, SD = 7.06), was recruited through the purposive sampling strategy from the different cities of Pakistan. In the first step, the authors established a factor structure of the workplace arrogance scale and retained 22 items with well-fitted indices of the one-factor solution model. The results of correlation analysis exhibited significant (p < .05) positive relationships between workplace arrogance, the personalized need for power (P nPower). The CWB was negatively associated with the socialized need for power (S nPower), humility, and agreeableness in corporate managers. The independent sample t-test indicated that male and female corporate managers had similar scores in terms of all study variables (p > .05). In addition, results of multiple linear regression analysis revealed that workplace arrogance and personalized need for power with 25% of the variance were found to be significant (p < .01) predictors of the CWB. Moreover, the path analysis through Structure Equational Modeling (SEM) also suggested that personalized need for power, workplace arrogance, and humility were significant predictors of CWB. Lastly, SEM demonstrated that humility significantly mediated the relationship between workplace arrogance, the need for power, and CWB in corporate managers. Moreover, two demographic variables (i.e., work experience and the corporate sectors) also impact their CWB and the overall model fit indices. The study provides researchers with a validated workplace arrogance scale on the corporate sample. It helps the researchers to expand their understanding of the significance of these constructs in the field of industrial-organizational psychology. In addition, the study seeks to benefit many employees and employers to comprehend the nature and the association of CWB with other undesirable variables in the workplace (i.e., workplace arrogance and personalized need for power).