Volume 11, Issue 2, Summer 2022

How Followers’ Perception of Insider Status Influences the Relationship Between Servant Leadership and Work Attitude?

Shu-Chuan Jennifer Yeh; Wen Chun Wang; Yi-Hsien Wang; Thomas T. H. Wan; Hsueh-Chih Chou

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 127-140
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60623

Servant leadership starts with an individual whose main interests are to serve, inspire and lead followers. Thus, the servant leader is an individual who is always pursuing and looking for better ways to achieve shared goals with fellow workers. The current study investigates the influencing mechanism of servant leadership on job satisfaction based on the social identity theory. Specifically, the purpose of this study is to develop a model of perceived insider status that mediates the relationships between servant leadership and employee job satisfaction. Data were collected from matched 90 leaders and 285 followers from the service industry in Taiwan. To avoid common method variance issue, we collected data across three-time points from two different sources. The statistical analyses included descriptive analysis, correlational approach, confirmatory factor analysis, and multi-level analyses. Using the bootstrapping method, the indirect effects of servant leadership on job satisfaction via perceived insider status were found to be significant. This study underscores the importance of encouraging leaders to engage in servant leader behaviors, thereby enhancing followers’ perception as insiders and improving followers' job satisfaction. Since servant leaders focus on employee-oriented tactics, it is essential to train leaders to enhance followers’ intrinsic motivation and shape their perceptions of belongingness and effectiveness. 

Tools Detecting and/or Measuring Ethical Leadership: A Systematic Literature Review

Eleftheria Argyropoulou; Antonios Spyridakis

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 141-163
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60624

The paper includes a Systematic Literature Review of the tools for detecting and/or measuring Ethical Leadership in the business world published between 2000 and 2020. The review attempts to explore, analyze and synthesize the most recent evidence from the field with the aim to summarize and integrate knowledge regarding Ethical Leadership. Our goal is to build a documentation framework for further research and future design of a more concise and accurate tool covering all possible aspects of Ethical Leadership. We choose the Systematic Literature Review method because it is structured and minimizes subjectivity when selecting and analyzing data. Our work addresses researchers/scholars, postgraduate students, PhD candidates, and private and public sector officials who need scientific evidence to support decision-making and/or policy designing. 

Managing Group Dynamics and Effectiveness of University Staff: Evidence from Nigeria

Eromafuru Godbless Edward; Nkiruka Livina Amaluwa

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 164-188
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60625

Research evidence linking managing group dynamic (GPD) to the effectiveness of academic and non-academic staff of Nigerian universities, is ostensibly scarce. While existing studies have majorly addressed the performance impact of group dynamics in general perspectives, there is a gap in gauging how managing dynamics in groups could lead to the effectiveness of staff of Nigerian universities. Built on two complementary theories, the study has sought to investigate the relationship between pooled constructs of group dynamics, including social integration (SI), team leadership (TL), interpersonal facilitation (IF), group efficacy (GE); and effectiveness of university staff in those measures as in productivity (PD), adaptability (AD), and flexibility (FL). The sample size of 253 staff was selected from 2050 staff, and a self-structured questionnaire was designed. Instrument reliability was confirmed for the individual construct of GPD and staff effectiveness (SE) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) which was used to validate the instruments. The frequency and percentage table, means, and standard deviations were engaged as descriptive tools. Linear and multiple regressions and variance inflation factor were designed to test hypotheses and relationships. Findings revealed a significant statistical relationship between the dimensions of GPD and measures of staff effectiveness except for the dimension of GPD (SI) with a weak aggregate predictive contribution. The study posited the need for management of the federal universities to forge integration with staff through adapting strategies of group dynamics to improve the effectiveness of academic and non-academic staff of universities. Especially, staff with innate creative ability and genius for innovation should be supported and motivated to reach their potential.

Team Leadership Behaviors from the Viewpoints of Healthcare Team Members: A Qualitative Study

Nazanin Shamaeian Razavi; Roghayeh Gandomkar; Ali Jafarian; Mohammad Jalili

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 189-205
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.6026

Team leadership in healthcare settings plays a fundamental role in ensuring that high-quality patient care is delivered. This study is the first to explore team leadership behaviors from the viewpoint of Iranian healthcare team members. This qualitative study was performed using directed content analysis. Face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 healthcare team members between October 2019 and June 2020. After each interview, the transcripts and related notes were read several times, semantic units were identified, and related codes were labeled. The specified codes were organized into subcategories and categories based on a predetermined framework placed in three main categories: transition, action, and interpersonal skills. Behaviors extracted from the transcripts consisted of 83 codes placed in 21 subcategories, and nine categories were assigned to three main categories of the predetermined framework. In the transition processes, situational analysis, teambuilding, debriefing, and feedback-seeking were the most influential leadership behaviors on the success of teamwork from the participants' viewpoints, especially members of surgical and emergency teams. Clinical competency, resource management, and coordination were more important leadership behaviors in the action processes, particularly in the opinion of attending doctors and nurses. Most participants emphasized conflict management, stress management, speaking up, encouragement, and accountability in interpersonal processes. This study improves our understanding of the leadership behaviors that influence successful teamwork achievement in healthcare settings. The findings have implications for further research and the enhancement of team leadership in healthcare settings, the development of structured team leadership training programs, and reliable assessment tools.

A Phenomenological Investigation on Ethical Leadership and Workplace Engagement from a Multi-Cultural Perspective

Nosheen Adnan; Omar Khalid Bhatti; Elif Baykal

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 206-234
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60327

Despite continuous attempts to introduce employee engagement measures, leaders worldwide have been increasingly concerned about diminishing employee engagement levels. The issue of workplace engagement continues to be a source of contention for academics and practitioners alike. There is still a need to comprehend this phenomenon since previous research lacks a thorough understanding of employee work engagement concerning ethical leadership. This qualitative study explores the perceptions of the leaders working in service organizations regarding ethical leadership on employee work engagement in three countries, i.e., Malaysia, Turkey, and Pakistan. The phenomenon of work engagement was explored in this study. The theory of self-determination supports the proposed theoretical framework of the current study. Purposive sampling was applied to select 28 leaders in the service sector. Semi-structured interviews were performed to understand employee engagement better using participant observations, opinions, strategic perspectives, and the employee handbook and recordings of interviews and meetings with service sector leaders. The findings highlighted eight major ethical leadership themes suggested by 28 managers in the interviews. Eight themes of ethical leadership are (1) Role Modeling, (2) Trust, (3 Honesty, (4) Integrity, (5) Justice, (6) Religiosity, (7) Responsibility, (8) Intellectual competence. The present study found that leaders applying different strategies and understanding the importance of employee engagement could improve employee engagement and have a more robust workforce and beneficial organization. 

The Conceptual Review on the Impact of Organizational Justice on Workplace Deviance and the Mediating Role of Psychological Contract Breach

Shuja Ilyas Chaudhary; Omar Khalid Bhatti; Huseyin Cipran; Ali Haider Bajwa

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2022, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 235-252
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60328

The prevalence of deviant behavior such as fraud, robbery, withholding effort, hostile acts, and sexual harassment in the workplace is a major problem for organizations. For good reasons, it is highly significant for executives and researchers to avoid deviant activity in the workplace. A recent report revealed that employees are found to be more involved than customers in deviant activities at the workplace. One in every fifteen employees steals from their employer.” The study finds that 33 to 75% of all workers have participated in deviant behaviors, and as many as 42% of women have been sexually abused at work. This article aims to analyze the phenomena of workplace deviance and destruction caused by workplace deviance in the form of huge psychological and financial losses to organizations. First, we discuss the need for research on workplace deviance, especially in the collectivistic culture, by reviewing previous studies from deviance literature. Next, we present the role of organizational justice in triggering workplace deviance. Then we also propose a new mediating variable in the form of a Psychological Contract Breach between Organizational justice and Workplace deviance. This paper also contributes significantly to the dimensions/facets of Organizational Justice. The presented theoretical framework can be useful for conducting future empirical research. Finally, we present the conclusion and future research in conducting cross-national research with respect to workplace deviance.