Volume 10, Issue Special Issue 2021, Summer 2021



Equine-Assisted Experiential Learning on Leadership Development

Elif Bilginoğlu

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue Special Issue 2021, Pages 3-16
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60532

In today’s fast-paced business world, where there is a need to develop divergent thinking and a wider range of skills, organizations seek original ways to be successful. Accordingly, leadership development has seen several uncommon approaches. Equine-assisted learning programs which involve innovative, underutilized, and motivating techniques and strategies, provide a dynamic process of building and developing leadership skills through horse-human interactions. In this paper, after the history of horse-human relationships and interactions are examined, a literature review is conducted on developing research and using equine-assisted leadership development programs. Although the extant research shows that equine-assisted leadership development programs promote skills critical to being an influential leader, the present paper provides an insight into equine-assisted experiential learning on leadership development, provides an overview on what happens in a typical equine-assisted experiential learning session, and suggests practical implications for researchers and organizations.

Leadership Styles of Principals in Private Higher Secondary Schools in Nepal

Rishi Prasad Tiwari

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue Special Issue 2021, Pages 17-29
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60533

This article focuses on principals' leadership style in private schools in Nepal regarding their job experience, age factors, level of education, and gender issues. It is based on the three dimensions of the leadership of Principals. They are democratic, autocratic, and laissez-faire, and they were examined with the rating style questionnaires as perceived by principals themselves and their teachers. The population sample of this study covered 78 principals and 163 teachers of different private higher secondary schools. The data for the qualitative study were collected, and Stata programming was applied as a statistical tool. The findings of this research indicated that most respondents, including principals themselves with different demographic characters, gave a high score for the democratic leadership styles of the principals. Basically, no variation was noted between the leadership style of male and female principals. But, respondents of academically highly qualified female teachers and more experienced teachers gave high scores for autocratic and laissez-faire leadership style in relation to few management functions like decision making, goal setting, and communication only. Conclusively, the democratic leadership style of principals was highly desirable, but autocratic leadership style and laissez-faire leadership styles were deemed desirable.

A Responsible Leadership Dimensional Framework Model

Safaa Shaaban

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue Special Issue 2021, Pages 30-43
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60534

During the last years, leaders in the business world face uncertainty regarding how their decision and actions are considered responsible. While numerous papers have discussed the Responsible Leadership (RL) concept, a few models presented the concept. Still, the existing contributions to RL do not present a clear conceptual framework from the point of view of theoretical-practical. This paper aims to present a theoretical conceptual, logical, and dimensional framework for the RL phenomenon debates in the literature. The methodology used a qualitative approach applying focuses group discussion with 45 leaders in 20 factories and companies located in Egypt in different industries. Also, this paper reviews various recent literature and previous models for discussing the RL concept. The suggested model covering this area is new and innovative based on four existing models and presents a new definition of the RL phenomenon.

Value-based Leadership Across Teachers’ Ranks and Its Significance in Schools: A Case of Primary Schools in Kajiado North, Kenya

Joseph K. Sambu; David Minja; Jane A. Chiroma

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue Special Issue 2021, Pages 44-66
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60535

This research assessed the practice of value-based leadership (VBL) of two ranks of primary school teachers in Kajiado North, Kenya. The study incorporated an explanatory sequential mixed-methods approach that utilized a pragmatic paradigm epistemology. Survey questionnaires were used to collect data from the teachers in the first quantitative phase and analyzed using (SPSS), v.25. In the second phase, interviews were conducted to gather qualitative information, which was thematically analyzed using Miner Lite software. The results from the quantitative phase showed a positive and significant relationship between the teachers’ VBL and the head teachers’ VBL. The practice of VBL in the two ranks of teachers was found to be consistent in integrity, trust, listening, respect, and inclusion and was inconsistent in vision and clear thinking. In the second phase, teachers described VBL as; leading through values and qualities, leadership that you see, leading by example, helping people grow and adding value to what they do, and doing what you are supposed to do by observing professional ethics. Consistency in the practice of VBL is critical in schools because it creates a uniform space where effective learning of values takes place. The study recommends the training of head teachers in VBL traits, in particular communication skills that will help them in delivering on vision and clear thinking. A replica of the study in the secondary school level is recommended to validate the findings.

Shared Leadership and Organizational Resilience: A Systematic Literature Review

Jotham Mukundi Gichuhi

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue Special Issue 2021, Pages 67-88
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60536

For a long time, leadership has been viewed as a ‘great man’ construct where an individual has the power, qualities, and position to influence others towards the achievement of a given goal or objective. However, that has changed. Heroic leadership can no longer meet the expectations being placed on leadership. Today’s organizations are also faced with drastically changing trends and turbulent landscapes. This has emphasized the need for top-notch leadership to guarantee organizational success in an economically globalized context. There is a growing interest in leadership forms that focus more on sharing the responsibility of leadership between different individuals with different capabilities and qualities. One of these forms of leadership is shared leadership. In today’s turbulent business environment, an organization’s success is determined by its resilience through difficult times. Given that success has been linked to leadership, this systematic review aims to review the extant literature on the link between shared leadership and organizational resilience. The systematic review entailed searching relevant and reliable literature in various databases such as, Emerald, Google Scholar, APA PsycNet, Researchgate, and JSTOR using keywords (shared leadership, organization resilience, relationship, and impact of shared leadership on organizational resilience) primarily through Boolean operators. The initial search resulted in 200 articles, which were filtered using the study’s inclusion and exclusion criteria resulting in 43 articles that were reviewed in this study. They culminated into a proposed integrated model appreciating the urgency of shared leadership in today’s business environment. The review shows that the connection between shared leadership and organizational resilience has not received a lot of attention, making it a potential area for future studies.

The Effect of Teachers’ Perception of Organizational Justice on their Job Stress

Mahwish Kamran; Martin Thomas

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue Special Issue 2021, Pages 89-98
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60537

Earlier studies concerning teacher-associated stress about organizational justice indicate that educating and instructing pupils is considered a hectic career, so bearing in mind the massive effect of organizational justice on teachers’ stress, it is imperative to study this relationship further. The drive of the present research was twofold: the primary objective is to study how educators view organizational justice, and additionally, it evaluated the extent to which educators’ opinions of three dimensions of organizational justice, including procedural justice, interactional justice, and distributive justice are connected to their stress levels. With the help of questionnaires, a quantitative research study was carried out. Data were collected from 200 sample cases of teachers selected by using the random sample selection technique from the private primary schools of Karachi. The regression analysis outcomes showed a significant positive relationship between teacher stress and organizational justice. The results of the independent sample t-test recognized that there is no difference between the mean values of the two groups. Hence, it can be interpreted that stress levels were the same for both males and females. It was thus suggested that institutions contribute to study the factors that can support impartiality and objectivity. There is a strong need to implement some managing policies which facilitate teachers to cope with their increasing stress levels.

The Effect of Servant and Transformational Leadership Styles on Employee Creative Behavior: The Moderating Role of Authentic Leadership

Ahmet Cengiz Ucar; Lutfihak Alpkan; Meral Elci

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue Special Issue 2021, Pages 99-119
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60538

Leaders are expected to trigger and increase the creative behavior of their followers, and hence they need to adopt various leaderships together. This study focuses on the effect of the servant and transformational leadership on employee creative behavior and the moderating role of authentic leadership on these relationships. One thousand one hundred forty-six blue- and white-collar employees working in the western region of Turkey were selected by convenience sampling. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Process Macro by Hayes have been used to determine the effects and interactions among variables. Servant and transformational leadership were positively related to employee creative behavior, and that these effects increased if moderated by authentic leadership. Thus, authentic leadership strengthens the positive impact of servant and transformational leadership on employee creative behavior. It is predicted that leaders should be servants or transformational leaders to increase employee creative behavior in their organizations. It should be taken into account that if these leaders also exhibit authentic leadership, the effect of leadership on employee creative behavior will be even greater. A second leadership is also included in the relationship between leadership and employee creative behavior, which is generally examined through a single leadership type. The interaction of this second leadership with other leadership is also tested.

Idealized Influence and Inspirational Motivation in a Microfinance Context: Review of Literature

Josphat K. Kariuki

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue Special Issue 2021, Pages 120-140
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60539

Besides the enormous attention paid to transformational leadership construct for the last four decades, much of the literature does not adequately delve deeper into the respective dimensions of the construct, thus limiting the clarity of how the dimensions impact organizations. This paper reviews the extant conceptual, theoretical, and empirical literature on the idealized influence and inspirational motivation dimensions of transformational leadership style focusing on microfinance context. This paper presents a comprehensive and integrative theoretical framework for knowledge advancement in the field of leadership. The methodology used for the review integrates the desktop and critical analysis of 56 journal articles in these dimensions. The key databases used to extract the relevant literature were JSTOR, Emerald, Google Scholar, DOAJ, and Wiley Interscience, with 69.09% being articles published in 2017 – 2021. Aspects used to qualify articles for review consideration were transformational leadership, idealized influence, inspirational motivation, and leadership in microfinance or any combination. The emerging gaps in the theorization and conceptualization of idealized influence and inspirational motivation were identified, presenting a case for further research on the transformational leadership construct. The review establishes that the four “Is” of transformational leadership (Idealized influence, Inspirational motivation, Intellectual stimulation, and Individualized consideration) are ambiguously interrelated, presenting a challenge of incoherence in the conceptual models used by researchers to conduct empirical research. The study also seeks to fill the contextual gap on the scanty research done to date on the outcomes of idealized influence and inspirational motivation in microfinance context such as staff retention, organizational commitment, self-efficacy, and organizational performance. A comprehensive conceptual framework for guiding further research on the constructs is formulated, including supportive propositions that can be empirically tested.

The Effects of Adaptive Leadership on Organizational Effectiveness at Public Higher Education Institutions of Ethiopia

Kefale Solomona Nebiyu; Tilaye Kassahun

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue Special Issue 2021, Pages 141-159
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60541

This study explores the effects of adaptive leadership practices on organizational effectiveness and the link and prediction of both constructs in higher education institutions located in the Amhara National Regional State of Ethiopia. The study adopted a descriptive survey and correlational research design with a quantitative method. The target population of the study consists of 5460 deans, directors, and academic staff members. The sample size was determined to be 620 using a sample size determination formula. A questionnaire with multi-item scales from prior developed models was adapted to gather primary data. Percentages, mean values, one-sample t-test, correlation, and regression analysis were used to examine the data. The findings revealed that leaders practice adaptive leadership at every level because of the current uncertain and dynamic challenges confronting institutions. Furthermore, leadership practice, characterized by adaptation and knowledge building, has led institutions to be effective organizations. The findings also indicate that the constructs have a positive and substantial association. This suggests that the more adaptive leadership is practiced in the institutions under investigation, the higher the goal attainment and organizational effectiveness will be.