Keywords : Organizational culture


A Cross-cultural Analysis of Management Approaches in Comparison to Turkish and Swiss Companies

Erdem Erciyes

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2019, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60483

This research investigates management approaches though a cross-cultural analysis of both Turkish and Swiss companies. A qualitative and exploratory research method was employed. Organizational culture, leadership and motivation have been investigated separately in the research. This approach provided a better understanding for highlighting different parts of both subjects and showed how they were related to each other. While the human oriented leadership types and management approach are beginning to gain popularity in Turkish companies, democratic and participatory types of leadership are more common in Swiss companies. Likewise, McClelland’s need of achievement and Maslow’s need of esteem are the most popular motivational preferences in Turkish companies. On the other hand, Swiss managers prefer McClelland’s human motivation theory in praxis. In addition, the findings of the research indicate that managerial awareness about different nationalities should be increased in both Turkish and Swiss companies. Managers who have high cultural intelligence should be employed and cultural sensitivity should be embedded into corporate culture of the companies. The findings of this research do not present different management systems or develop scientific road maps for dealing with various cultures, however, it emphasizes the importance of showing managerial awareness about different nationalities in the work environment.

Fuzzy AHP Approach to Prioritizing the Critical Success Factors of Organizational Culture

Nihan Çaglayan; Abdullah Yildizbasi; Babak Daneshvar Rouyendegh (Babek Erdebilli)

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2018, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 454-466
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60456

The world that we live in where the social and organizational life rapid social and cultural transformations are experienced, and the intensities of change and competition are intensely perceived has a dynamism. In this dynamism, every human being is a part of an organization. In these organizations, there is a culture which is defined in various ways by various thinkers and it is a rather complex concept. However, all definitions have reached the conclusion that the culture is a common entity shared with a community. In the 1980s, the concept of organizational culture has emerged. While many formal definitions exist, organizational culture is basically a term used to describe the environment where people work and the influence it has on how they think, act, and experience work. Therefore, organizational culture is stated as a system of values, behaviors, habits, norms, beliefs and that direct the behaviors of individuals in an organization. As each individual has a unique personality, every organization has its own personality that distinguishes it from other organizations. Hence, organizational culture consists of several abstract and complementary factors. Literature has shown that there are many factors affecting the success of organizational culture. The prioritization of these factors for the organizations and the effective use of the available resources are gaining importance at this stage. At this stage, different approaches are taken in the literature to prioritize and sort the criteria. MCDM approach which is one of the most prominent approaches was used in this study. The proposed approach was tested based on the opinions of the decision makers and the results were shared.

The Impact of Human Resource Management Practices on Innovative Ability of Employees Moderated by Organizational Culture

Qaiser Aman; Tayyba Noreen; Imran Khan; Rafaqet Ali; Asim Yasin

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2018, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 426-439
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60434

This study examines the relationship between human resource practices and innovation in the banking sector of Vehari and the moderation effects of organizational culture on this relationship. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from respondents. Overall, 276 questionnaires were distributed and received back 151 (response rate 54%). The independent variable has six human resource practices: Reward strategy, recruitment strategy, performance appraisal, career oriented trainings, performance oriented trainings and career management. The dependent variable is innovation in banks and the moderator variable is organization culture. This study found a partial support for the relationship between human resource practices and innovation with reward strategy, recruitment strategy. The performance appraisal was significant predictor of innovation and career management. The performance oriented trainings and career oriented trainings were insignificant predictors of innovation. The organization culture moderated this relationship negatively.

The role of transformational leader in developing knowledge culture in public sector hospitals

Sobia Mahmood; Muhammad Arif Khattak

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2017, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 511-524
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2017.60362

The study emphasizes on the role of transformational leader in developing a culture of knowledge sharing in public sector hospitals. Transformational leaders may become the source of inspiration and serve as role models for organizational members to share their valuable knowledge with others. The leaders are unable to develop an organizational culture where there is trust among organizational members to share their valued knowledge with each other. However, it is needed to know that whether a cause and effect relationship exists among transformational leader and knowledge sharing. The implication of the present study is the result of the dangerous nature of the problem that confronts not only some hospitals, but whole health sector and indeed countries as a whole. The present study helps in developing a trust based organizational culture where employees feel free to share their worthwhile knowledge. By sharing knowledge, the performance of the hospitals can also be enhanced and patient care becomes easier. 

The effects of organizational culture on the development of strategic thinking at the organizational level

Mohammad Bagher Arayesh; Emad Golmohammadi; Maryam Nekooeezadeh; Abbas Mansouri

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2017, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 261-275
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2017.60385

Strategic thinking is a strategic capability that helps managers to understand their ability in predicting and controlling future events and distinguishing them. Meanwhile, instead of being placed under the influence of changes, they affect the changes. Organizational culture is a factor that can result in the development of strategic thinking in organizations. The basic purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of organizational culture on the development of strategic thinking at the organizational level of Ilam Gas Refinery. Previous studies mostly used individual models of strategic thinking, while the current study addressed indigenous model of strategic thinking at the organizational level. The research sample included 168 top and middle managers and experts who were selected through simple random sampling. To collect data, Cameron and Quinn’s (2006) organizational culture questionnaire and questionnaire of Golmmohammadi, Kafche, and Soltanoanah (2013) were used. Regression and structural equation came into use in data analysis and testing the research hypotheses. The results showed that organizational culture had a significant impact on the strategic thinking at the organizational level. Among the aspects of organizational culture, market’s culture was a better explanation for strategic thinking which had a significant positive effect on all aspects of strategic thinking.

The impact of organizational culture on organizational performance: The mediating role of employee’s organizational commitment

Amin Nikpour

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2017, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 65-72
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2017.60432

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mediating role of employee’s organizational commitment on the relationship between organizational culture and organizational performance. This study was descriptive and correlational research that was conducted through the survey method. The study population consisted of all employees in education office of Kerman province and 190 persons were selected as volume of sample by using Cochran’s formula. The data gathering tools were organizational culture, organizational commitment, and organizational performance questionnaires. Descriptive and inferential statistics (structural equation modeling through path analysis) were used to analyze the data. The data was analyzed using SPSS and AMOS softwares. The findings of the research indicated that suggested model had appropriate fit and organizational culture beyond its direct impact exerted indirect impact on organizational performance through the mediation of employee’s organizational commitment that the extent of indirect impact was significantly higher than direct impact. 

Role of leader-member exchange relationship in organizational change management: Mediating role of organizational culture

Muhammad Arif; Sarwar Zahid; Uzma Kashif; Muzammal Ilyas Sindhu

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2017, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 32-41
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2017.60339

Today’s dynamic and global village enforces competitive organizations to adopt new practices, processes, and regulations for survival. This study examined the role of leader-member exchange relationship in organizational change management with mediating role of organizational culture. Supervisors have contributing role to implement the changes. Middle and front line managers have more discretionary power to implement further changes for having better performance. The findings of this study showed that there exist significant and positive relationship between LMX and organizational change management. Furthermore, it is also depicted that organizational culture show mediation between LMX and organizational change management.

Teachers’ perception of organizational culture and trust relation

Ali Riza Terzi

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2016, Volume 5, Issue 4, Pages 338-347
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2016.60448

This survey explores the effect of organizational culture on organizational trust. The study group includes 253 primary and secondary school teachers working in Balikesir, Turkey and the study has a descriptive survey design. The data was collected by School Culture Scale and Organizational Trust Scale. The results showed that the duty culture is the dominant school culture. It is the principal that the teachers trust the most.  The secondary school teachers believe that a success oriented and supportive atmosphere exists at workplace and trust their coworkers more than they do the principal. The support and duty dimensions of organizational culture are significant predictors of organizational trust. Based on the results of the study, it can be suggested that school administrators enhance a supportive culture at their institutions. The theoretical significance of the study is that the results of the study will help to better understand the organizational behavior and the practical significance of the study is that these results can be used to increase the organizational efficiency.

Structural and Behavioral Dimensions of Institutionalizing Methods of Organizational Culture Oriented on Human Munificence

Marziyeh Fardin; Nour Mohammad Yaghoubi

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2016, Volume 5, Issue 4, Pages 348-359
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2016.60296

According to general administrative policies which are imparted to government organizations, this paper is aimed to identify and prioritize the  institutionalizing methods of organizational culture based on human munificence in structural and behavioral dimensions. This research is an applied research adopting a descriptive-correlational method and survey method. The statistical community of this study consisted of 341 employees of University of Sistan and Baluchestan and among them, 125 employees were randomly chosen. In order to collect data, a researcher-made questionnaire of organizational culture based on human munificence is used. The results of one sample t-test confirmed all identified factors in the model except one of them and this indicated that the mentioned factors can play a role in institutionalizing organizational culture based on human munificence. Finally, these factors were prioritized by using the Friedman test. The results indicated that meritocracy and performance evaluation in structural dimension and accountability. The properties protection which is in behavioral dimension has the most priorities for institutionalizing the culture of human munificence-oriented in organizations.

Rokeach’s instrumental and terminal values as descriptors of modern organisation values

Krista Tuulik; Tauno Õunapuu; Karin Kuimet; Eneken Titov

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2016, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 151-161
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2016.60252

Many authors have created different tools to measure or estimate organisational culture. Among the possibilities, they emphasize the use of organisational values. One of the most well-known values classifications is Rokeach’s (1973) terminal and instrumental values. Although this classification has been developed more than 40 years ago, the theory is still a basis for many modern studies. The aim of our study is to find out whether Rokeach’s values are still valid and relevant in modern organisational cultures or not. Almost 150 representatives of Estonian organisations were questioned in order to find out which Rokeach’s values they perceive to be in use in their organisations. According to the results, general ethical values as instrumental values were named least frequently and just one of the terminal values was not named at all – salvation. Rokeach’s values lists are not sufficiently relevant enough today to measure and describe the wide and colorful variety of values. 

Does organizational culture mediate the relationship between transformational leadership and organizational commitment

Nor Hazana Abdullah; Alina Shamsuddin; Eta Wahab

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2015, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 18-32
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60344

To date, the relationships among organizational culture, transformational leadership and
organizational commitment have been empirically investigated. However, majority of these
studies have been focusing on direct effects of either transformational leadership or
organizational culture on organizational commitment in large organizations. This approach
might not only hinder our understanding on real predictors of organizational commitment but also obscure the presence of spurious relationships. Therefore, this study aims to determine the mediating effect of organizational culture on the relationship between transformational leadership and organizational commitment among small business employees. An explanatory research design was used with cross-sectional survey as data collection technique. Once the composite reliability, construct, and convergent and discriminant validity of the measurement constructs were established, a Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) was run to analyze the structural model and the mediating effect of organizational culture. The results showed that organizational culture mediates the effect of transformational leadership on organizational commitment among small business. This study cautions the generalization of findings obtained from large organizations to be extended to small organizations.