Volume 10, Issue 2, Spring 2021

Research Paper

Moderating the Relationship between Leadership and Commitment: An Empirical Study on Personality and Values

Thomas Meixner; Richard Pospisil; Pavel Zufan

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 115-139
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60521

Attracting and retaining talent is considered to be among the most crucial challenges for contemporary leadership. Building on this notion, the present paper aims to foster an understanding of the complex interplay between leadership practices and employee commitment. In these regards, the moderating role of personality variables and personal values is critically assessed. Building on a two-dimensional model of organizational commitment, the study proposes that leadership variables predict both emotional and behavioral commitment, with the relationship being moderated by personality variables as assessed throughout the Big Five framework and by personal values. To determine the validity of these hypotheses, an empirical, quantitative study was conducted following an observational design focusing on the employee perspective. Standardized questionnaires were utilized to assess the levels of commitment, the perceived leadership style of the participants’ leaders, their personality and values. A total of n = 310 individuals were recruited for participation in the empirical study, conducted by using an online survey. The statistical analyses showed a stable, significant correlation between the perception of leadership style and both types of organizational commitment, with leadership communication taking on a noteworthy role. The relevance of personality variables and values also could be confirmed, with their predictive power being more substantial for behavioral commitment. This was established using multiple linear regression analyses that compared the predictive power of the individual predictors.

Analysis of the Links between Burnout Syndrome and Coping Strategies in Trade Managers

Zuzana Birknerová; Barbara Nicole Čigarská

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 140-154
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60522

Burnout syndrome presents the main problem in the mental and physical state. It is one of the most studied work-related syndromes in recent decades, and it is closely related to energy depletion, exhaustion, chronic stress from work that is not well managed. The matter commonly points to health specialists, but it is necessary not to be indifferent in other professions. Depending on the purpose of the research, the following methodologies were applied. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) comprised of twenty-two issues relating to determinants of Emotional Exhaustion (EE), Depersonalization(DP), and Personal Accomplishment (PA), and the Brief Cope Inventory (COPE) was used to find out what coping strategies trade managers choose in demanding situations. This self-report questionnaire contains the scale that defines an individual’s primary coping styles: Avoidant or Approach Coping. The main goal of the study was an analysis of associations between burnout syndrome determinants and coping strategies in trade managers (N = 270). The data were collected in the Slovak Republic by online questionary, and the representative sample involved top managers (N = 57), middle managers (N = 120), and first-level managers (N = 93). The analysis confirmed the existence of statistically significant links between selected determinants of burnout syndrome and certain coping strategies in terms of demanding situations in trade managers. Based on the outcomes, it can be summed up that managers used Approach coping strategies more often than Avoidance coping strategies

An Evaluation of How Educators in Virtual Teams Perceive Charismatic Leadership During the COVID-19 Crisis

Latifa Attieha; Omar Zouhairy

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 155-170
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60523

Leadership constituted a topic of high interest for researchers and practitioners alike for years. Numerous studies have focused on leadership styles, particularly charismatic leadership, as an antecedent to organizational achievements. However, most researchers neglected to consider the followers’ perception of their leader’s performance. Understanding and accommodating the needs of the followers is essential to the leader’s success. The current study investigates the influence of charismatic leaders on dispersed teams in non-vocational educational institutions in Lebanon. This quantitative study utilized two structured questionnaires to investigate the charismatic leadership during the COVID-19 crisis from the perspective of educators who work in virtual teams. Five hypotheses on the effect of crisis-bound charismatic leadership on distant educational teams were tested. The relation between the number of years of experience and charisma was not explored since the majority of respondents fell in the category of five years or more at the institution. A total of seventy-seven respondents completed the survey online. Statistical analysis, using the software SPSS-23, showed that neither gender nor level of education affected the followers’ perception of charismatic leadership during crises. Nonetheless, the study findings showed a strong positive correlation between charismatic leadership and the ability to lead in a crisis, concluding that charismatic leaders emerge in times of stress

An Analysis of Teachers’ Attitudes Towards Women School Managers

Ahmet Yildirim; Ahmet Üstün; Mustafa Çelikten

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 171-182
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60524

There has been a lot of research on gender discrimination in school management and factors that prevent women from becoming managers. Examining the literature showed that attitudes contribute to the reasons for the low number of women managers. This research aims to evaluate teacher attitudes towards women school managers. In the 2018-2019 academic year, the research population was composed of teachers in schools/institutions that are woman managers affiliated to the Ministry of National Education in Amasya provinces and districts. The sample size determined by non-selective sampling management was 157 teachers from the Taşova District of Amasya which. Attitude scale towards woman school managers was applied in the study using the method of descriptive screening. The frequency and percentage values of demographics were examined using the SPSS 17 packet program. An Independent t-test was applied to analyse gender, marital status, educational level variables, and one-way variance analysis for the age variable. More than half of the participants in the study described work experimentation with woman managers positively. As a result of the research, significant differences were observed in gender, education status, and age variables. In contrast, no significant differences were observed in terms of marital status variables.

Influence of Emotional Burnout on Coping Behavior in Pedagogical Activity

Elena Voitenko; Serhii Myronets; Vasyll Osodlo; Kateryna Kushnirenko; Ruslan Kalenychenko

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 183-196
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60525

Emotional burnout syndrome is seen as a non-constructive mechanism of psychological protection, which worsens the psycho-emotional state and complicates professional and social adaptation. The study aims to identify the presence and nature of the relationship between the development of this syndrome in teachers with the degree of intensity of coping mechanisms. In a study organized by the cross-sectional design, a survey of 107 Ukrainian teachers was conducted. According to the purpose of the study, the following diagnostic techniques were used: Victor Boyko's method of diagnosing the level of emotional burnout, version of the Russian-language adaptation of Ways of Coping Questionnaire. The main hypotheses of this study were tested using correlation analysis and analysis of variance. Correlations between the stages of emotional burnout and the peculiarities of coping behavior have been established. It was found that the development of emotional burnout in teachers is associated with the gradual replacement of constructive coping strategies with non-constructive strategies. Furthermore, teachers' emotional burnout was associated with the gradual replacement of problem-oriented coping strategies with passive maladaptive strategies. Burnout due to the violation of the system of self-regulation and depletion of resources of stress resistance was accompanied by increased strategies of avoidance and emotional distancing from problems and strategies that involved a high degree of hostility and aggression. The obtained results indicated the inexpediency of considering coping strategies as a factor in overcoming emotional burnout. Further research is needed to study the factors and mechanisms for choosing coping strategies, criteria for their effectiveness, and consequences for further development of stress

Attitude Change Process in Group-Level Collaborative Activities: Descriptions of Interaction via a Conversation Analysis Approach

Yuto Kimura

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 197-213
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60526

In group-level collaboration at work, there is a mutual dynamic in which members are influenced by the attitudes of others while also influencing the attitudes of others. However, it is difficult to depict the phenomenon of group change itself via questionnaires and interviews. Therefore, in this study, we conducted a protocol analysis for voice data from a meeting to examine the attitude change within a group in detail. Protocol data were acquired from educational program development through industry-academia collaboration in Japan, and we analyzed conversation data with the following two aims. The first aim was to quantitatively confirm the basic tendency of the speaker type and the descriptive pattern in the work scene classified with a classified descriptive form code. The second aim was to describe the attitude changes of group members via interpretive analysis of group-level utterance cases using descriptive codes. The analysis indicates that an implicit cooperative relationship may have occurred in terms of the speakers’ role and the pattern of speech. Specifically, the results suggest that two members dared to express conflicting attitudes and changed the overall opinion while respecting the opinions of members of other organizations. These are among the results of the quantitative analysis of the utterance structure using descriptive form codes as the basic data for conversation analysis. In practice, these findings could be applied to deliberately control the attitudes of members within an organization.

The Role of Ego Depletion and Autonomy in the Relationship Between Time-pressure and Knowledge-based Behavior

Roksana Binte Rezwan; Yoshi Takahashi; Nu Nu Mai

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 214-232
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60527

This research explored the mechanisms by which time-pressure may influence different
knowledge-based behavior, e.g., knowledge sharing and knowledge hiding. Based on the strength
model of self-control, we proposed that ego depletion may explain why time-pressure may
decrease knowledge sharing and increase knowledge hiding. Moreover, based on the job demand
control model, we also proposed that job autonomy would weaken the positive association
between time-pressure and ego depletion. To test our hypotheses, we conducted a daily diary study
over ten workdays. We recruited 24 employees from a post-graduate class in a university in
Myanmar to participate in our study and made 153 observations. We found that time-pressure was
associated with increased ego depletion. We also found a positively but marginally significant
association between time-pressure and evasive knowledge hiding and playing dumb knowledge
hiding. A small negative mediation effect of ego depletion was found on the relationship between
time-pressure and knowledge sharing. Moreover, we found a significant moderation effect of job
autonomy on the relationship between time-pressure and ego depletion. This study contributes to
extant research by exploring for the first time the underlying mechanisms by which time-pressure
influences knowledge sharing and clarifying the mixed results found in previous studies of the
relationship between time-pressure and knowledge hiding