Volume 7, Issue 2, Spring 2018, Page 106-210


Psychological Empowerment and Organizational Innovation: Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment

Amin Nikpour

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 106-119
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60421

The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of employee’s psychological empowerment, employee’s job satisfaction, and employee’s organizational commitment on organizational innovation. The study is a kind of descriptive- correlational research that was conducted using a survey. Also, this study is in terms of the objective of the development-applied research. The statistical population of the study included all employees in Refah bank of Kerman city, and 244 employees were selected as the sample. The psychological empowerment, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and organizational innovation questionnaires were used to collect the data, and descriptive and inferential statistics including structural equation modeling technique were used to analyze the gathered data. The findings confirmed the conceptual model of the study, and also found that employee’s psychological empowerment beyond its direct influence exerts indirect effect on organizational innovation through the mediations of employee’s job satisfaction and organizational commitment and the extent of indirect effect is significantly higher than that of direct one.

Exploring the Effect of Leader Member Exchange (LMX) Level on Employees Psychological Contract Perceptions

Atilhan Naktiyok; Mehmet Emirhan Kula

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 120-128
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60335

Leader member exchange (LMX) theory emphasizes that leaders establish different associations with each one of their followers through a system of exchanges and a psychological contract is an employees beliefs regarding the mutual obligations between the employee and an employer. Within this study the impact of subordinates’ leader member exchange level on perceived psychological contract violation has been identified at first and it has been found that subordinates’ leader member exchange level negatively effect on perceived psychological contract violation. Also it is seen when the demographic variables are taken into account that there are significant relations between education level, type of employment and age categories.

Effect of Family Influence, Personal Interest and Economic Considerations on Career Choice amongst Undergraduate Students in Higher Educational Institutions of Vehari, Pakistan

Asad Afzal Humayon; Shoaib Raza; Rao Aamir Khan; Noor ul ain Ansari

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 129-142
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60333

This study examined the effect of family influence, personal interest, and economic considerations in career choice amongst undergraduate students. The present study used quantitative research design. Target population was undergraduate students of higher educational institutions in Vehari, Pakistan. Cross-sectional data was used in this study. For data collection simple random sampling technique was used. The data was collected through structured questionnaire. The descriptive, demographic, reliability, correlation, and multiple regression analyses were applied to find answer to research questions. The results of regression analysis showed that the family influence, personal interest and economic considerations exercised big influence on the career choice of students. The Limitations of the study, suggestion for the future study, theoretical and practical implications were also discussed in this study.

Board of Directors and General Manager Role in Organization Governance and Attention to Board of Directors’ Characteristics Components

Ali Taghavi Moghaddam; Abolghassem Massihabadee; Mohamadreza Shorvarzi; Alireza Mehrazeen

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 143-152
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60213

Board of directors and General Manager are considered the most important factors in control and supervision on firm management and shareholders’ resources protection. The board of directors main responsibility is to set up efficient governance on the firm affairs in alignment with shareholders interests and balance in the interests of its different beneficiaries including customers, staff, investors and local societies, to provide independent supervision on executive directors’ function, and to challenge the commercial decisions and strategy of executive management. Board of directors is the ultimate responsible for operations and financial health of the firm as well.  Studies about board of directors’ characteristics can be divided into two domains of components associated with board of directors characteristics and its effect on other variables. The current gap in literature creates motivations for this study. No comprehensive study has been initially existed so far in terms of the board of directors characteristics measurement. Issues associated with measurement in social sciences and board of directors characteristics scales have been rarely discussed in accounting literature. However, this study fills these gaps in literature and prepares a wide review of board of directors characteristics scales existing in accounting literature. Furthermore, this review discusses the existing measurement issues in the board of directors characteristics concept and prepares recommendations for considering the current issues in the future research.

Examining the Relationship of CEO Compensation, Duality of Managing Director, and Weakness of Internal Organizational Controls with Audit Fee

Ali Reza Ahmadi Simab; Amir Shams Koloukhi

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 153-161
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60443

This study aims to examine the effect of CEO compensation, duality of managing director, and quality of internal organizational controls on audit fee. Audit fee is the written fee in the related financial statements; CEO compensation is extracted from the decisions in the public meeting session. Duality of managing director is simultaneous attribution of chief or vice presidency of CEO to one person obtained from CEO reports. To measure internal controls´ quality, reference of the auditor in his report to the significant internal control weaknesses was the basis. Using systematic random sampling, 91 firms listed in Tehran Stock Exchange from 2013-2015 were selected. For hypothesis test, panel regression model and Hausman test were used to select from combined models, fixed and random effects. Results showed a positive and significant correlation between natural logarithm of CEO compensation and audit fee. There was no significant correlation between duality of managing director, weakness of internal controls, and audit fee.

The Perception of Reporting and Self Censorship of the Press Members: The Example of Cyprus Turkish Journalists

Tijen Zeybek; Ayse Gözde Koyuncu

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 162-177
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60319

In our day, it is discussed whether or not the media serves it is function of announcing the news about government performances (actions) and legal arrangements (setting) which are directly related to the society. In this discussion, the topics of censorship and auto censorship heavily appear. As it is well known, censorship is generally handled as a common problem arising from the hierarchical structure. In a more general definition, it is thought of a result of a downward pressure from several power centres. When looked at from an individual perspective though, the concept of auto censorship manifests itself as a form of censorship in which an individual applies censorship to him/herself without the need for a pressure from above. According to this definition, auto censorship is the reckoning of the journalist with him/herself, and after balancing the public benefits and personal harms of a texts he/she wants to write, making a decision not to write it (Kizil, 1998, p 27 - 28). In this study, it is aimed to bring to light the role of auto censorship during the course of pressmens communication of the information they gathered and their own opinions with the society. With this aim, face to face interviews have been carried out with ten pressmen working in the capital of TRNC, Nicosia, by using semi structured question forms. Half of the participants have been chosen among the public sector and the remaining half from the private sector. The data obtained from the interviews and observations have been analysed. Various findings have been put forward about the attitudes and behaviours of pressmen toward auto censorship during their working hours, whether they were using the mechanism of auto censorship or not, and if they were using the mechanism of auto censorship, what was the extent and frequency of it. 

Mobbing and its Effects on Turkish Nurses: A National Literature Review

Betül Sönmez; Aytolan Yildirim

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 178-194
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60341

This review aims to methodically analyze studies regarding mobbing behavior prevalence, individuals performing this behavior and the effects of mobbing on Turkish nurses. Five databases were searched thoroughly on November 2014 with no time limitation to identify the studies in English and Turkish that evaluated mobbing and its effects on nurses in Turkey. Of 71 records found by initial search, only 38 studies met the inclusion criteria. The findings were obtained using the results of 38 studies carried out in the past 13 years in Turkey. Analysis of the incidences of mobbing behavior revealed a broad spectrum, ranging from rarely experiences to 100% experiences. Victims mostly experienced mobbing from their managers, the most common consequence of these actions related to the psychological effects. The high frequency of exposure of nurses to mobbing behavior in such a large sample highlights the importance of considering this issue in terms of individual and institutional consequences that adversely affect the performance of nurses.

Heuristic Evaluation of E-Learning

Hale H. Turhangil Erenlergil Erenler

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 195-210
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60235

As Knowledge Management applications, E-learning platforms have been used in many organizations. Universities as knowledge management appliers and early adopters of E-learning platforms as knowledge-sharing channels, making education independent of time and location, created new opportunities for students to become active and collaborative participants of their learning. In this respect, learning management systems offered tools and modules to facilitate knowledge construction, knowledge gathering and sharing among its participants. This study examined the critical factors of usability evaluation of the learning management system Moodle as part of students’ blended learning in a computer literacy course at a funded University in Turkey. The model based on Nielsen’s 10 heuristics and was tested with data from 236 students. Descriptive statistics showed that students generally agreed with the system and did not face problems when working with it. The study used structural equation modeling (SEM) for data analysis and found eight factors to be significant in the research model after an exploratory factor analysis.