Drawing on the social exchange approach and an accompanying sub-theory pertaining to upper echelons theory, which are the most influential theories for describing the behavior of workers in the workplace, this study empirically investigates some corresponding moderated serial mediation variables, such as affective commitment, work meaningfulness, and perceived organizational support, which impact the relationship between Phoenix leadership and organizational change. A total of 150 employees working in the Sudanese Electricity Company participated in the questionnaire survey. The response rate was 88%. The results revealed that Phoenix leadership significantly influences organizational change and affective commitment. Affective commitment significantly influences work meaningfulness. Affective commitment and work meaningfulness mediate the relationship between Phoenix leadership and organizational change. Affective commitment mediates the relationship between Phoenix leadership and work meaningfulness. Work meaningfulness mediates the relationship between affective commitment and organizational change, but perceived organizational support does not moderate the relationship between work meaningfulness and organizational change. By testing the mediated moderation effects on the relationship between Phoenix leadership and organizational change, this research proposes a new framework for assessing the impact of mediators and moderators on teams of employees during the COVID-19 pandemic.