Keywords :


High-Performance Human Resource Practices and Firm Performance: Mediating Effect of Corporate Entrepreneurship

Tugce Hanci-Donmez; Gaye Karacay

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 63-77
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2019.60358

Corporate entrepreneurship (CE) positively affects growth and profitability of organizations by providing competitive advantage over innovation driven technological transformations and intense global competition. CE activities have an elevator role on company performance via adoption of a change-oriented structure and development of new products, processes and services. High performance human resource practices (HPHRPs) help to boost both intra-firm level entrepreneurial behavior, and also organizational outcomes. When combined with the influential effect of corporate entrepreneurship activities, HPHRPs support achievement of better organizational performance. In this study, a selected group of HPHRPs was assessed for their possible direct and indirect effects on firm performance. Moreover, the possible mediation effect of CE activities in this relationship was examined. To test the hypotheses of the study, the data were gathered from a total of 199 manufacturing and service sector companies operating in Turkish business environment. As a result of the structural equation modeling analysis conducted by AMOS, the mediation effect of CE activities between HPHRPs and firm performance was validated within the context of the current study. In addition, the results indicated a varying relationship between different HPHRPs and CE activities. Explicitly, training, clear job description, participation opportunities, employers employment commitment, reward and performance evaluation practices were found to have distinctive effects on innovation, new business venturing and self renewal activities, which act as mediating variables between the selected HPHRPs and firm performance.

The Mediating Effect of Job Satisfaction on the Relationship of HR Practices and Employee Job Performance: Empirical Evidence from Higher Education Sector

Muhammad Asad khan; Rosman Md Yusoff; Altaf Hussain; Fadillah Binti Ismail

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 78-94
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2019.60392

The aim of this research is to analyze the effect of human resource practices (HR) on employee job performance under the mediating effect of job satisfaction. A total of 300 faculty members from six public sector universities responded to the self-administered questionnaire. The findings come from both descriptive statistics and inferential statistics using cross-sectional data which was performed at the expediency of the scholar. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed using structural equational modelling (SEM) to obtain the results of the study. This study has found that HR practices: recruitment and selection, training and development, performance appraisal and compensation have direct and significant effect on employee job performance through job satisfaction among the university faculty members. The impact of these HR practices has widely been studied and their importance has acknowledged. However, the number of studies addressing this issue in public-sector universities is extremely scarce. This study has addressed that gap. The findings of the study, if given serious note by the policy makers in the respective field, are expected to improve employee job performance. The study is expected to have enriched the body of knowledge on the mediating effect of job satisfaction on the relationship of HR practices and employee job performance in the target population and has validated past findings.

Decentralization and Innovative Behavior: The Moderating Role of Supervisor Support

Mahlagha Darvishmotevali

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 31-45
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2019.60204

The importance of innovative behavior for organizational effectiveness has been wildly accepted. Spite of the importance of organizational structure to promote the innovative behavior, little is known regarding the decentralized system in service industry. In addition, the role of supervisor support in such circumstances is highly significant; however, the link between decentralization, supervisory support and innovation is not particularly clear. Therefore, the current study aims to examine the impact of decentralization on employees’ innovative behavior and also to investigate the moderating role of supervisor support in this process. Data was collected from 323 employees from five star hotels in North Cyprus. Structural equation modelling was applied to evaluate the measurements and model’s fit. The study hypotheses were tested using LISREL 8.54. The results revealed that decentralized system has a positive impact on employees’ innovative behavior. Moreover, moderating role of supervisory support in helping employees to achieve organizational innovative goals was significant. The existence of decentralization opens new opportunities for organizations and increases the innovative behavior among employees. Employees who have degree of freedom for decision-making and risk-taking within an organization are more creative, and will take the initiative to seek new and efficient ways and approaches of doing their jobs.

Transformational Leadership and Neurofeedback: The Medical Perspective of Neuroleadership

Rizki Edmi Edison; Solikin M. Juhro; A. Farid Aulia; Puti Archianti Widiasih

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 46-62
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2019.60317

The world is now facing such a volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous situation known as VUCA that it has generated such new challenges. Therefore, it is imperative that a leader to have competences that always grow. Transformational leadership is a type of leadership deemed superior to anticipate those challenges, where a leader is supposed to always be agile in achieving the organizational goals. This study aimed at analyzing a correlation among leadership aspects (through Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire/MLQ assessment), cognitive functions (through Wechsler Bellevue assessment), and brain activity pattern/brain mapping (through Electroencephalography/EEG). Then, we gave a stimulus through neurofeedback to train the participants’ control over their brain waves. The results revealed that all participants that became the research samples had a transformational leadership type with idealized influence (behavior) and inspirational motivation subtypes. Moreover, the presence of stimulation to the brain (neurofeedback) enabled the participants to control their brain waves when they were conscious. The leaders will be able to perform optimally when they can control their brain waves and when they are conscious.

Examination of the Effects of Emotional Intelligence and Authentic Leadership on the Employees in the Organizations

Zafer Adigüzel; Eda Kuloglu

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 13-30
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2019.60412

In the highly competitive environment of the business world, organizations implement human resource policies and practices to increase the motivation and performance of employees. Efforts to keep employee turnover at minimum levels are directly proportional to employee satisfaction and their willingness to stay in the organization. Employees’ dissatisfaction, leaders’ attitudes and behaviours, human resources policies determine the life of the organizations. The increase in the employment turnover rate can decrease the performance of the organization, bring additional costs and cause employee trainings to be ineffective. In particular, the qualified employees can easily leave the organization if they do not like the management approach leads to the formation of different management understandings and perspectives. The leadership style of the managers and the human resources policies can shape the future of the organizations.  Therefore, it is important to conduct studies in this field to help the senior managers to make decisions and demonstrate their leadership roles. The sample of this study consists of 498 white-collar employees working in the private and public sector. The findings were subjected to factor and reliability analyses by using IBM SPSS 23 program. The hypotheses were tested by regression analysis and the results were evaluated and presented accordingly.

Leadership 4.0: Digital Leaders in the Age of Industry 4.0

Birgit Oberer; Alptekin Erkollar

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 404-412
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60332

Industry 4.0 stands for ‘fourth industrial revolution and is a term referring to rapid transformations in the design, production, implementation, operation, and service of manufacturing systems, products, and components. To get the most out of Industry 4.0 technologies, organizations will have to heavily invest in building capabilities in the following dimensions: data and connectivity, analytics and intelligence, conversion to the physical world, and human-machine interaction. In this study, the human dimension of industry 4.0 has priority, by analyzing behavioral leadership theories that focus on the study of the specific behaviors of a leader (the leader behavior is the predictor of his leadership influences and is the best determinant of his leadership success). A two dimensional 4.0 leadership style matrix was developed (x-axis: innovation/technology concern; y-axis: people concern). The results of this study revealed that the developed industry 4.0 leadership style might have the dimensions of first-year students, social, technological or digital, where the 4.0 digital leader forms the highest reachable level in the 4.0 leadership matrix.

The Effect of Organizational Structure on Organizational Justice Perceptions of Employees

Mehtap Özsahin; Senay Yürür

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 440-453
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60290

The antecedents of perceived fairness of employees about their executives and organizations need to become evident because organizational justice results in both positive and negative changes in behaviours and attitudes of employees. Although, organizational justice refers to the employees’ perceptions about organizational structure and practices, the studies systematically examining organizational factors as antecedents of organizational justice are very rare. In this context, this survey aiming to search the effects of structural factors in terms of centralization and formalization on organizational justice perception of employees is expected to contribute to literature. The survey is conducted on 356 employees of 15 SMEs operating in manufacturing and service industry in Marmara Region-Turkey.  Data obtained from those 356 questionnaires were analysed through the AMOS statistical program. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using AMOS 22.00 statistical programme is conducted to test construct validity and reliability. To test hypotheses, researchers employed structural equation modelling (SEM) with maximum likelihood estimation. Survey findings revealed a positive relationship between formalization level as a component of organizational structure and perceived organizational justice of employees, which is consistent with the previous studies in literature. The finding of this survey revealing a non-significant effect of centralization on procedural and distributive justice is inconsistent with the most of previous studies. However, two surveys conducted in Turkey about that issue had produced similar results strikingly. Thus, findings of a non-significant effect of centralization on procedural and distributive justice but a positive effect on interactional justice may have some Turkish culture-specific implications.

The Relationship between Whistleblowing and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour in Textile Sector

Mehmet Kiziloglu

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 398-403
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60245

The aim of this research is to examine the relationship between whistleblowing and organizational citizenship behaviors in textile sector operating in Denizli province. The textile production and sales have always been placed on the top for the economic structure in Denizli. One of the important concepts of whistleblowing can be defined as revealing illegal and immoral practices in an organization. The concept of Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is defined as the assumption by employees of positive roles toward the organization about issues that do not fall within their own area of duty, on a voluntary basis and without having any expectation. The study used an empirical approach which includes qualitative and quantitative methods of analyzing data. The data were gathered through surveys from 12 SME firms in textile sector. In total, 192 useable surveys were obtained. The results revealed that there are statistically significant relationships between whistleblowing and organizational citizenship behavior in textile sector.

Academic Institutions Are No Different to Any Other: Total Quality Management Does Enhance Performance

Elham S. Hasham

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 348-373
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60340

There are many skeptics about the contributions of Total Quality Management (TQM) to education because of its roots in the world of business. TQM says nothing about actual production but stresses the process of management and collaboration within the system to reach quality output. Any quality-conscious organization, despite the nature, should understand this. This paper will not present any innovative ideas but will define TQM and focus on its influence on the various facets of an institution of higher education. TQM helps to provide better services to its primary customers-students and the community.  Moreover, TQM focuses on continuous improvement and growth that can offer an enhanced and challenging learning environment for all involved. Thus, a more effective and efficient corporate culture emerges. 

Leadership Styles of Managers from the Perspective of Gender

Lucia Zbihlejová; Miroslav Frankovský; Zuzana Birknerová

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 340-347
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60216

The main objective of the study is to find out whether there are any statistically significant differences in the assessment of the selected leadership attributes between managers from the perspective of gender. A differential analysis was conducted on the sample of 129 respondents (55 male managers – 42.6% and 74 female managers – 57.4%) on the basis of the data collected by means of two methodologies for detecting the leadership behavior attributes: Managerial Grid (Blake and Mouton, 1964) and the new original methodology PALEQ (Paternalistic Leadership Questionnaire). The results of the analyses confirmed the existence of statistically significant differences between male and female managers in assessing the individual leadership attributes. Based on these results, it can be concluded that in terms of the assessment of leadership behavior, male managers use the authoritarian forms of leadership more extensively, whereas female managers are more oriented at the lenient, clement leadership behavior, as compared to the male managers.

The Impact of Human Resource Management Practices on Innovative Ability of Employees Moderated by Organizational Culture

Qaiser Aman; Tayyba Noreen; Imran Khan; Rafaqet Ali; Asim Yasin

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 426-439
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60434

This study examines the relationship between human resource practices and innovation in the banking sector of Vehari and the moderation effects of organizational culture on this relationship. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from respondents. Overall, 276 questionnaires were distributed and received back 151 (response rate 54%). The independent variable has six human resource practices: Reward strategy, recruitment strategy, performance appraisal, career oriented trainings, performance oriented trainings and career management. The dependent variable is innovation in banks and the moderator variable is organization culture. This study found a partial support for the relationship between human resource practices and innovation with reward strategy, recruitment strategy. The performance appraisal was significant predictor of innovation and career management. The performance oriented trainings and career oriented trainings were insignificant predictors of innovation. The organization culture moderated this relationship negatively.

The Impact of Transformational Leadership and Social Interaction on Organizational Performance in the Viewpoint of Knowledge Management: An Empirical Study in Banking Sector of Pakistan.

Raza Hussain Lashari; Aiza Hussain Rana

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 383-397
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60307

This research examines the impact of transformational leadership (TL) and social interaction (SI) on organizational performance (OP) in the perspective of knowledge management (KM) within Pakistan’s banking sector. In developing countries, knowledge management (KM) is highly practiced but in Pakistan it is a new concept and at the initial stages of its implementation. The situation of Pakistan’s banking sector is better than other services sectors. Therefore, Pakistan’s banking sector is opted as population of the study. Using the simple random sampling technique, 350 questionnaires were distributed in different bank’s branches. The questionnaires were filled by two officer’s rank of employee, i.e., top level managers and middle level managers. Totally, 270 questionnaires were fully completed and used for final analysis. The overall response rate was 77%. Different statistical techniques were applied on the collected data, i.e., Reliability analysis, Pearson’s correlation, Regression analysis and Sobel test. The results indicated that there is a positive relationship among transformational leadership, social interaction, knowledge management, and organizational performance. Furthermore, knowledge management acted as partially mediator between transformational leadership, social interaction and organizational performance. Additionally, current research provides guidelines to the management of banking sector of developing countries specially Pakistan that how transformational leadership, social interaction and knowledge management can improve the organizational performance.

Fuzzy AHP Approach to Prioritizing the Critical Success Factors of Organizational Culture

Nihan Çaglayan; Abdullah Yildizbasi; Babak Daneshvar Rouyendegh (Babek Erdebilli)

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 454-466
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60456

The world that we live in where the social and organizational life rapid social and cultural transformations are experienced, and the intensities of change and competition are intensely perceived has a dynamism. In this dynamism, every human being is a part of an organization. In these organizations, there is a culture which is defined in various ways by various thinkers and it is a rather complex concept. However, all definitions have reached the conclusion that the culture is a common entity shared with a community. In the 1980s, the concept of organizational culture has emerged. While many formal definitions exist, organizational culture is basically a term used to describe the environment where people work and the influence it has on how they think, act, and experience work. Therefore, organizational culture is stated as a system of values, behaviors, habits, norms, beliefs and that direct the behaviors of individuals in an organization. As each individual has a unique personality, every organization has its own personality that distinguishes it from other organizations. Hence, organizational culture consists of several abstract and complementary factors. Literature has shown that there are many factors affecting the success of organizational culture. The prioritization of these factors for the organizations and the effective use of the available resources are gaining importance at this stage. At this stage, different approaches are taken in the literature to prioritize and sort the criteria. MCDM approach which is one of the most prominent approaches was used in this study. The proposed approach was tested based on the opinions of the decision makers and the results were shared.

The Impact of University Social Responsibility towards Producing Good Citizenship: Evidence from Malaysia

Roziana Shaari; Azlineer Sarip; Azizah Rajab; Wan Zarina Zakaria

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 374-382
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60183

This paper provides empirical evidence on university social responsibility efforts and how it impacted community. The objectives are to investigate the role UTM plays within and outside UTM boundary in providing facilities and services to the community; and to explain how the facilities and services provided by UTM impacted the community. The study employed secondary data, surveys and focus group discussion to collect data on social impacts. The findings explain on how a university impacted on producing good citizenship through providing facilities and services to their community.

Key Skills and Competences for Social Business Advisors: Views from Experts

Nelly Bencheva; Teodora Stoeva; Stela Todorova

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 413-425
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60282

The aim of the present article is to analyze the training needs as a difference between the current and desired state of knowledge, skills and qualifications of business advisors to provide the necessary consulting services to social intermediaries and social enterprises. Professional profiles of social business consultants are presented on the basis of published job requirements in organizations providing business consulting to social enterprises and by some organizations outside the country due to the poor development of these activities at national level. The research includes the results of 30 interviews with three categories of “Business advisors”, “Business advisors’ entities” and “Social entrepreneurs”. Business advisors usually provide financial and strategic advice to small and mid-sized companies, cooperatives, social enterprises and other formats of company formations. The business advisors must also have an excellent business sense and keen communication skills in order to be able to adequately support social entrepreneurs.

Hotel Recruitment and Selection Practices: The Case of the Greek Hotel Industry

Alexandra-Paraskevi Chytiri; Fragkiskos Filippaios; Leonidas Chytiris

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 324-339
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60465

Hotel industry, as a service industry, is greatly dependent upon its employees. Recruitment and Selection practices constitute an important starting stage for hotels towards generating an efficient and productive workforce. The present study, by focusing on 5* and 4* hotels, examines the current trends in the implementation and effectiveness of recruitment and selection practices in the Greek hotel industry, controlling for class category, size and ownership. An inferential quantitative research design was used, and an online survey was conducted, using a seven–point questionnaire. The study concludes that hotel industry, at least in Greece, is still using old – fashioned and cost effective recruitment and selection methods. Findings also outline that 5* and 4* hotels do not differentiate their mix of methods used in recruiting and selecting future employees. Internal recruitment methods are mostly considered to be effective in contrast to external recruitment methods. While interviews and reference checks are listed at the top of the effectiveness list of selection methods. The findings of this research enhance industry understanding of the use and effectiveness of recruitment and selection methods and indicate the need for hotels of superior class to re–examine their recruitment and selection methods and adopt more contemporary ones in their mix.

Review of the Individual and Organizational Factors Related to Human Resource Empowerment and Designing an Optimal Model to Promote Manifestations of Productivity

Rouhollah Nasiri; Ali Mollahosseini; Sanjar Salajegheh; Ayyub Sheikhy

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 230-239
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60289

Human resources number of important factor and based organizational. Preparation this resource for faced with changes is of particular importance and of organization must in each mission allocated most capital, time and program. The solution to this problem, many organizations have recognized empowerment programs and tried to provide ground for nurturing staff. The relationship between individual and organizational factors in the institute of communications and information technology, the relationship between psychological empowerment responsibilities and not licensed, but the relationship between self-esteem, creativity and internal locus of control and psychological empowerment is confirmed. Relations between all factors include: clarity to goals, access to information, and access to resources, training and the provision of treatment with psychological empowerment is confirmed. Moreover, the relationship between psychological empowerment of human resources productivity showed the effects of lateral relations between all dimension of (including: significance, suitability, effectiveness, autonomy and trust) the effects of productivity is confirmed.

Factors Influencing Entrepreneurial Intentions of Slovak Youth Growing up in Cities and in Villages

Stanislav Kološta; Filip Flaška; Gabriela Nedelová; Alena Kašcáková; Torbjørn Årethun; Jon Gunnar Nesse

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 270-283
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60229

Entrepreneurial intentions and factors influencing them are important in explaining and often triggering the entrepreneurial activity resulting in establishing new business and enabling to employ other people. This is especially important in category of young people. This study tries to explain common and different threats in entrepreneurial education, individual and contextual factors as variables explaining entrepreneurial intentions of youth growing in two different environments – city and village. This study also investigates if young people are willing to start their carrier in place of their birth. Data were collected in two rounds of voluntary anonymous electronic surveys among students, 537 respondents, who have finished their high-school studies. The principal component and regression analysis were applied.  The dependent variable, entrepreneurial intentions, is constructed by combining items that differently measure an individual’s intentions to become an entrepreneur. The independent variables consist of measures for entrepreneurial education, social and cultural capital as well as individual factors as gender, career anchors, proactive personality and others.

The Role of Work-Group Emotional Intelligence in Learning Organizations: a Case Study of the Greek Public Sector

Christina Arfara; Athanasios Lamprakis; George Tsivos; Dr Irene Samanta

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 240-255
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60383

The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of Emotional Intelligence at work-group level on Learning Organization, examining five dimensions of L.O. according to Senge’s model, within a framework of Greek Public Administration reform. The research was conducted among Greek Independent Administrative Authorities, a modern European institution that among others guarantees transparency and optimum performance, leading to upgraded public sector services. Our research is a quantitative research consisting of 257 valid questionnaires out of a sample of 300 employees. Our research highlights the strong correlation between Work-group Emotional Intelligence and Learning Organization. A constructive emotional climate affects the vision of the organization, while emotions have an impact on employees’ attitudes/behaviours and on the learning process within the group as well as on the diffusion of information. Finally, our research demonstrated that emotional intelligence affects the personal improvement and development of employees. Managers should focus on developing more emotionally intelligent employees by cultivating an emotional environment that promotes positive behaviours, system thinking and group learning. Thus, the benefits generated can be identified at both individual and organizational level, including higher levels of employees’ personal development, better communication processes and implementing the organization’s vision.

Transformational Leadership through Applied Neuroscience: Transmission Mechanism of the Thinking Process

Solikin M. Juhro; A. Farid Aulia

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 211-229
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60394

The world has changed as we entered the new situation full of volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity. To be able to cope with this situation, an organization has to translate the challenges into a clear vision and action. A leadership style that is agile to adapt with the magnitude and the characteristic of the occurring problem is needed. Transformational leadership is a participative leadership style that is not only able to motivate and drive the organization vertically and horizontally but also always be agile in every circumstance. Thus, the organizational capacity to achieve the shared vision and mission will be encouraged. Applied neuroscience gives an understanding about the activities and mechanism of the brain which improves the required competences of a leader. Therefore, applied neuroscience will help a leader transform the organization. This study shows that applied neuroscience can help a transformational leadership achieve a “physically, emotionally, and mentally safe” state and encourage an organization to transform itself effectively.This study does not only explore a new perspective of transformational leadership issues, but it also provides an important contribution related to applied neuroscience, in particular, mapping transmission mechanism of the brain activities affecting body’s reaction, internally (emotions and hormone) and externally (body reaction), which further affect the transformational leadership behaviors.

Leadership and Organization for the Companies in the Process of Industry 4.0 Transformation

Özlem Akçay Kasapoglu

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 300-308
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60217

The global effect of disruptive technology has brought about huge productivity improvements in manufacturing. The changing and differentiated demand of the customers pushed the industry to improve their production systems in the Industry 4.0 concept for being more responsive to the changing conditions. The increased knowledge level on the data science made the data analytics possible and more meaningful. Industry 4.0 is the common name used to describe the current trend towards a fully connected and automated manufacturing system, or Smart Factory. All production decisions are optimized based on real time information from a fully integrated and linked set of equipment and people. There is an urgency in the manufacturing companies to change their technology, knowledge, and he workforce skills for the Industry 4.0 understanding in order to stay competitive. The transformation process to the Industry 4.0 concept is a strategic decision and it requires leadership to deploy the strategy all through the organization by training from the top to the bottom of the organization.

Turkish Validation of the Work-Family Conflict Scale

Ilksun Didem Ülbegi

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 256-269
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60431

The aim of this study is to translate and validate work-family conflict scale abbreviated and developed by Matthews, Kath and Barnes-Farrell (2010) in a Turkish sample. The present study was conducted in a sample of 317 bank employees. The confirmatory factor analysis revealed two-factor structure work-to-family and family-to-work conflict dimensions of the original scale. The convergent, discriminant, and nomological validity analyses showed satisfactory results. Reliability analyses indicated that the scale had high internal consistency and sufficient item correlations. The findings revealed that the Turkish version of work-family conflict scale is a valid and reliable instrument to examine work-family conflict in Turkish context.

The Effect of Family, Peer, Behavior, Saving and Spending Behavior on Financial Literacy among Young Generations

Jamal Mohammed Esmail Alekam; Madya Salniza Bt Md. Salleh; Sany Sanuri bin Mohd. Mokhtar

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 309-323
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60258

Financial literacy has become a significant challenge in society especially among the young generation. Financial literacy is about distinct knowledge, behavior and normative influence towards financial literacy affairs. It will help the youthful generation to make good financial commitment. Financial literacy also involves the distinct ability to understand financial idea and interpret data. Hence, the purpose of this study is to assess the height of financial literacy amid the young generation in Malaysia. It directs to developing a unique representation of financial literacy among youthful age as assumed Family, Peer, Attitude, Saving and spending behavior significantly influence Financial Literacy among Young Generations. Considered relationships were tested using survey response from Kedah, Perlis, Perak, Johor and Kuala Lumpur, with a sample of 500 respondents. About 410 answers from the respondents were received. The questionnaire consisted of 42 items. The results revealed a significant positive relationship between Behavior and Financial Literacy. Furthermore, the findings showed that Family/Parental and Peer significantly influenced Financial Literacy. Hence, this study implies that it is related to the public, academic and university administrators, government, and financial advisor to grow the level of financial literacy by implementing several financial educational programmers. Ultimately, this study is considered one of the studies that have contributed to the literature by developing apprehensions of financial literacy.

Determining the Factors Affecting Individual Investors’ Behaviours

Sevilay USLU DIVANOGLU; Dr. Hasim BAGCI

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 284-299
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60407

Behavioral finance is precisely non-rational behavior of market investors. Behavioral finance theory shows that investors make investment decisions rationally, by intermittent change from the past and that investment decisions can be taken under the influence of some psychological factors. This theory shows how human behaviors are effective in the functioning of investment decisions and that investment decisions can be made in non-rational behaviors. People are determined to invest under the influence of emotions and personal intuitions with models based on rational behavior and investment behaviors. Whether individuals are rational in the economic decision-making process is one of the key points of debate and it seems quite complex to be able to demonstrate this. This study will focus on individuals (investors), one of the economic decision makers. Socio-economic factors, as well as psychological factors, influence the risk that investors perceive in the decision-making process of individual investors. The purpose of this study is to identify stimuli that affect individual investors drivers of financial investment decisions and to consider it in terms of behavioral finance. For this purpose, an individual investor questionnaire has been determined in the field which has previously been validated and reliable. This questionnaire was applied to 200 employees working in private and public banks operating in Aksaray and 177 people were provided feedback. In the case of Aksaray, it has been determined which stimulants are under the influence of predictions, estimates, emotions, personal intuitions, psychological and sociological behaviors of investment decision-making individuals.

Board of Directors and General Manager Role in Organization Governance and Attention to Board of Directors’ Characteristics Components

Ali Taghavi Moghaddam; Abolghassem Massihabadee; Mohamadreza Shorvarzi; Alireza Mehrazeen

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 143-152
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60213

Board of directors and General Manager are considered the most important factors in control and supervision on firm management and shareholders’ resources protection. The board of directors main responsibility is to set up efficient governance on the firm affairs in alignment with shareholders interests and balance in the interests of its different beneficiaries including customers, staff, investors and local societies, to provide independent supervision on executive directors’ function, and to challenge the commercial decisions and strategy of executive management. Board of directors is the ultimate responsible for operations and financial health of the firm as well.  Studies about board of directors’ characteristics can be divided into two domains of components associated with board of directors characteristics and its effect on other variables. The current gap in literature creates motivations for this study. No comprehensive study has been initially existed so far in terms of the board of directors characteristics measurement. Issues associated with measurement in social sciences and board of directors characteristics scales have been rarely discussed in accounting literature. However, this study fills these gaps in literature and prepares a wide review of board of directors characteristics scales existing in accounting literature. Furthermore, this review discusses the existing measurement issues in the board of directors characteristics concept and prepares recommendations for considering the current issues in the future research.

Exploring the Effect of Leader Member Exchange (LMX) Level on Employees Psychological Contract Perceptions

Atilhan Naktiyok; Mehmet Emirhan Kula

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 120-128
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60335

Leader member exchange (LMX) theory emphasizes that leaders establish different associations with each one of their followers through a system of exchanges and a psychological contract is an employees beliefs regarding the mutual obligations between the employee and an employer. Within this study the impact of subordinates’ leader member exchange level on perceived psychological contract violation has been identified at first and it has been found that subordinates’ leader member exchange level negatively effect on perceived psychological contract violation. Also it is seen when the demographic variables are taken into account that there are significant relations between education level, type of employment and age categories.

Effect of Family Influence, Personal Interest and Economic Considerations on Career Choice amongst Undergraduate Students in Higher Educational Institutions of Vehari, Pakistan

Asad Afzal Humayon; Shoaib Raza; Rao Aamir Khan; Noor ul ain Ansari

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 129-142
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60333

This study examined the effect of family influence, personal interest, and economic considerations in career choice amongst undergraduate students. The present study used quantitative research design. Target population was undergraduate students of higher educational institutions in Vehari, Pakistan. Cross-sectional data was used in this study. For data collection simple random sampling technique was used. The data was collected through structured questionnaire. The descriptive, demographic, reliability, correlation, and multiple regression analyses were applied to find answer to research questions. The results of regression analysis showed that the family influence, personal interest and economic considerations exercised big influence on the career choice of students. The Limitations of the study, suggestion for the future study, theoretical and practical implications were also discussed in this study.

Examining the Relationship of CEO Compensation, Duality of Managing Director, and Weakness of Internal Organizational Controls with Audit Fee

Ali Reza Ahmadi Simab; Amir Shams Koloukhi

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 153-161
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60443

This study aims to examine the effect of CEO compensation, duality of managing director, and quality of internal organizational controls on audit fee. Audit fee is the written fee in the related financial statements; CEO compensation is extracted from the decisions in the public meeting session. Duality of managing director is simultaneous attribution of chief or vice presidency of CEO to one person obtained from CEO reports. To measure internal controls´ quality, reference of the auditor in his report to the significant internal control weaknesses was the basis. Using systematic random sampling, 91 firms listed in Tehran Stock Exchange from 2013-2015 were selected. For hypothesis test, panel regression model and Hausman test were used to select from combined models, fixed and random effects. Results showed a positive and significant correlation between natural logarithm of CEO compensation and audit fee. There was no significant correlation between duality of managing director, weakness of internal controls, and audit fee.

The Perception of Reporting and Self Censorship of the Press Members: The Example of Cyprus Turkish Journalists

Tijen Zeybek; Ayse Gözde Koyuncu

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 162-177
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60319

In our day, it is discussed whether or not the media serves it is function of announcing the news about government performances (actions) and legal arrangements (setting) which are directly related to the society. In this discussion, the topics of censorship and auto censorship heavily appear. As it is well known, censorship is generally handled as a common problem arising from the hierarchical structure. In a more general definition, it is thought of a result of a downward pressure from several power centres. When looked at from an individual perspective though, the concept of auto censorship manifests itself as a form of censorship in which an individual applies censorship to him/herself without the need for a pressure from above. According to this definition, auto censorship is the reckoning of the journalist with him/herself, and after balancing the public benefits and personal harms of a texts he/she wants to write, making a decision not to write it (Kizil, 1998, p 27 - 28). In this study, it is aimed to bring to light the role of auto censorship during the course of pressmens communication of the information they gathered and their own opinions with the society. With this aim, face to face interviews have been carried out with ten pressmen working in the capital of TRNC, Nicosia, by using semi structured question forms. Half of the participants have been chosen among the public sector and the remaining half from the private sector. The data obtained from the interviews and observations have been analysed. Various findings have been put forward about the attitudes and behaviours of pressmen toward auto censorship during their working hours, whether they were using the mechanism of auto censorship or not, and if they were using the mechanism of auto censorship, what was the extent and frequency of it. 

Psychological Empowerment and Organizational Innovation: Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment

Amin Nikpour

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 106-119
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60421

The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of employee’s psychological empowerment, employee’s job satisfaction, and employee’s organizational commitment on organizational innovation. The study is a kind of descriptive- correlational research that was conducted using a survey. Also, this study is in terms of the objective of the development-applied research. The statistical population of the study included all employees in Refah bank of Kerman city, and 244 employees were selected as the sample. The psychological empowerment, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and organizational innovation questionnaires were used to collect the data, and descriptive and inferential statistics including structural equation modeling technique were used to analyze the gathered data. The findings confirmed the conceptual model of the study, and also found that employee’s psychological empowerment beyond its direct influence exerts indirect effect on organizational innovation through the mediations of employee’s job satisfaction and organizational commitment and the extent of indirect effect is significantly higher than that of direct one.

Mobbing and its Effects on Turkish Nurses: A National Literature Review

Betül Sönmez; Aytolan Yildirim

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 178-194
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60341

This review aims to methodically analyze studies regarding mobbing behavior prevalence, individuals performing this behavior and the effects of mobbing on Turkish nurses. Five databases were searched thoroughly on November 2014 with no time limitation to identify the studies in English and Turkish that evaluated mobbing and its effects on nurses in Turkey. Of 71 records found by initial search, only 38 studies met the inclusion criteria. The findings were obtained using the results of 38 studies carried out in the past 13 years in Turkey. Analysis of the incidences of mobbing behavior revealed a broad spectrum, ranging from rarely experiences to 100% experiences. Victims mostly experienced mobbing from their managers, the most common consequence of these actions related to the psychological effects. The high frequency of exposure of nurses to mobbing behavior in such a large sample highlights the importance of considering this issue in terms of individual and institutional consequences that adversely affect the performance of nurses.

Heuristic Evaluation of E-Learning

Hale H. Turhangil Erenlergil Erenler

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 195-210
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60235

As Knowledge Management applications, E-learning platforms have been used in many organizations. Universities as knowledge management appliers and early adopters of E-learning platforms as knowledge-sharing channels, making education independent of time and location, created new opportunities for students to become active and collaborative participants of their learning. In this respect, learning management systems offered tools and modules to facilitate knowledge construction, knowledge gathering and sharing among its participants. This study examined the critical factors of usability evaluation of the learning management system Moodle as part of students’ blended learning in a computer literacy course at a funded University in Turkey. The model based on Nielsen’s 10 heuristics and was tested with data from 236 students. Descriptive statistics showed that students generally agreed with the system and did not face problems when working with it. The study used structural equation modeling (SEM) for data analysis and found eight factors to be significant in the research model after an exploratory factor analysis.

Prediction of Selected Personality Characteristics of Businessmen in the Context of their Potential to Work with Customer

Tatiana Lorincová; Anna Tomková; Ladislav Suhányi

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 99-105
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60232

The current paper aimed to analyze the predictive power of conscientiousness and agreeableness which are important personality characteristics of businessmen and related to potential to work with customers. The sample consisted of 122 respondents, 42 women and 80 men (average age was 28.71 and standard deviation 2.98) working in business area with customers. The data were collected through NEO-Five Factor Inventory which measured the level of agreeableness and conscientiousness developed by McCrae and Costa (1987) in Slovak translated by Hrebicková and Urbánek (2001) and SKASUK- Scale of potential to work with customer developed by Sonnenberg in Slovak translated by Kovác (2006). Based on the confirmed aspects it was concluded that motivation to help had significant predictive power in predicting conscientiousness. Dominance and social appreciation did not have significant predictive power in predicting conscientiousness. We found that characteristics which are potential to work with customer did not have significant predictive power in predicting agreeableness. Social appreciation contributed to prediction of agreeableness at significant level.