Keywords : Critical incident interview
Team Leadership Behaviors from the Viewpoints of Healthcare Team Members: A Qualitative Study
International Journal of Organizational Leadership,
2022, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 189-205
Team leadership in healthcare settings plays a fundamental role in ensuring that high-quality patient care is delivered. This study is the first to explore team leadership behaviors from the viewpoint of Iranian healthcare team members. This qualitative study was performed using directed content analysis. Face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 healthcare team members between October 2019 and June 2020. After each interview, the transcripts and related notes were read several times, semantic units were identified, and related codes were labeled. The specified codes were organized into subcategories and categories based on a predetermined framework placed in three main categories: transition, action, and interpersonal skills. Behaviors extracted from the transcripts consisted of 83 codes placed in 21 subcategories, and nine categories were assigned to three main categories of the predetermined framework. In the transition processes, situational analysis, teambuilding, debriefing, and feedback-seeking were the most influential leadership behaviors on the success of teamwork from the participants' viewpoints, especially members of surgical and emergency teams. Clinical competency, resource management, and coordination were more important leadership behaviors in the action processes, particularly in the opinion of attending doctors and nurses. Most participants emphasized conflict management, stress management, speaking up, encouragement, and accountability in interpersonal processes. This study improves our understanding of the leadership behaviors that influence successful teamwork achievement in healthcare settings. The findings have implications for further research and the enhancement of team leadership in healthcare settings, the development of structured team leadership training programs, and reliable assessment tools.