Issue 4

Exploring Chinese School Principal Experiences and Leadership Practice in Building a Professional Learning Community for Student Achievement

Wei Zhang; Tetyana Koshmanova

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 331-347
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60594

This basic qualitative study explores Chinese high school principals' concepts, experiences, and opinions in building a professional learning community for student achievement in China. The semi-structural interview protocol was used to collect data from Chinese principals (N = 12) to investigate their challenges for school practical recommendations. Findings show that principals face three major challenges: (1) high exam score culture and top schools cause disengagement and lose educational core values; (2) parent high expectation causes difficulty of school growth; (3) lack of enough educational resources cause insufficient administration, teaching, and learning. In addition, findings show that principals play three major roles: (1) reconciling top-down policy intent role; (2) head role; (3) mediating role. Further, this study found that principals use three strategies to build a professional learning community: (1) communication, (2) value-based policy, and (3) engagement with a high salary and support program. Finally, this study found that school principals need to shift from the high testing score to emphasize educational core values. They also need to shift from power and authority to transformational, distributed, social-justice, and Junzi leadership; and from student testing score sole evaluation system to integrated teaching pedagogical support system for delivering high-quality teaching. Therefore, future studies could use the exploratory sequential mixed methods research design to explore how school principals use social justice, distributed, Junzi, and transformational leadership in the K-12 school contexts in the United States and China.

The Mediating Effect of Perceived Stress on Transformational and Passive-Avoidant, Leadership-Commitment Linkages

Ozge Tayfur Ekmekci; Selin Metin Camgoz; Semra Guney; Mustafa Kemal Oktem

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 348-366
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60595

The current study tests an integrative model that considers the plausible effects of transformational and passive-avoidant leadership styles on employees’ affective, normative, and continuance commitment to the organization. While leadership styles are treated as predictors of commitment, perceived stress is treated as a mediating factor in understanding the underlying mechanism of commitment. Data were collected from 232 white and blue-collar employees working at regional divisions of a privatized organization, monitoring Turkey’s electricity distribution services. The hypothesized mediation model was tested using structural equation modeling. Using the bootstrapping method, the indirect effects of both transformational leadership and passive-avoidant leadership on affective and normative commitment via perceived stress were found to be significant. However, contrary to the expectations, the mediating effects of perceived stress were found to be insignificant for relations between transformational leadership and continuance commitment and between passive-avoidant leadership and continuance commitment. The overall results suggest that employees tend to feel less tension and stress and thus ultimately become more affectively and normatively committed to the organizations when the supervisors exhibit transformational leadership behaviors. Passive-avoidant leadership behaviors, on the other hand, act as distal predictors of affective and normative commitment via perceived stress. By enacting passively and showing ignorance to subordinates' needs, passive leaders seem to intensify workplace stressors for followers.

Effects of Fatherhood on Leadership Behaviour of Managers

Bernhard Stellner

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 367-384
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60598

Becoming a father is a major life event for men and is accompanied by new role expectations and behavioural changes. While earlier research focused on the conflictual facets, more recent work-family enrichment theory emphasises the positive aspects of multiple roles. Previous quantitative and qualitative research has found that parenthood positively influences overall leadership and management behaviour at work. Our quantitative study uses a more granular definition of leadership behaviour with data from 157 male managers from Central Europe collected with a web-based survey. We find that 14 out of 15 transformational leadership behaviours (TLB) improve significantly with fatherhood. The individual behaviours supporting, recognizing, and developing progress the most. Only networking remains unaffected. Parental role enrichment outweighs conflict, and the resulting net effect correlates strongly with TLB. Also, parental role commitment and job level (position and number of subordinates) have a positive effect on TLB improvement. Parental role commitment and net enrichment show strong multicollinearity. Despite the positive effects of fatherhood on TLB in general, these decrease as the number of children increases, contradicting the intuition that "the more, the better". The findings should be considered in both managerial theory and practice as they concern the majority of men in leadership positions.

Progressive Convergent Definition and Conceptualization of Organizational Resilience: A Model Development

Eltigani Ahmed; James Kilika; Clare Gakenia

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 385-400
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60599

This paper aims to examine how the construct of resilience is currently defined and propose a more comprehensive and unidirectional definition, conceptualization, and operationalization for the construct. We applied a rigorous systematic literature review in line with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) selection criteria covering historical currency, topical relevance, and publication appropriateness. We reviewed 1490 articles and publications on organizational resilience generated from a combination of academic databases and search engines. We identified the points of convergence and divergence in the definitions and discussed the implications for theorizing organizational resilience. The thematic descriptive extracted from the selected articles were cross-validated from comparable peer-reviewed papers included in this study. The article departed from common knowledge that organizational resilience is still evolving, and a unified definition is necessary to guide future scholarly works. We attempted to provide a current answer to the question, what is organizational resilience. We proposed that organizational resilience is the process and outcome of strategic preparedness for an adaptive response to disruptive shocks, capitalization on disruptive shocks, instinctive survival, positive transformation, and prosperity through disruptive shocks. We further proposed a conceptual model to illustrate our ideas. This article contributed to the ongoing debate on how organizational resilience should be defined and conceptualized using the most updated systematic review reporting framework.

Examining the Role of Motivation and Reward in Employees’ Job Performance through Mediating Effect of Job Satisfaction: An Empirical Evidence

Kalpina Kumari; Salima Barkat Ali; Noor un Nisa Khan; Jawad Abbas

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 401-420
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60606

The current research uses the principles of reinforcement theory of motivation and self-determination theory and investigates how motivation and rewards impact on job performance of employees. Motivation and rewards are examined from intrinsic and extrinsic perspectives, while job performance is measured from the task and contextual performance aspects. The mediating effect of job satisfaction has also been investigated between motivation, rewards, and job performance. Using five points Likert scale, the researchers collected data from the managerial and non-managerial staff working in manufacturing and services firms. Non- probability convenience sampling technique was followed to collect 422 empirical responses. The collected data were analyzed using the structural equation modeling technique. The results indicated that reward and motivation affect employee job performance positively significantly. However, the dimensional analysis indicated an insignificant impact of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on contextual performance. Besides, the findings substantiate that the relationship between rewards, motivation, and employees’ job performance depends on job satisfaction. The current research provides valuable insights to senior management of manufacturing and services firms on how they can enhance their employees' job satisfaction and performance by following different motivational and reward approaches in different size firms.

Fourth Industrial Leadership Index (4IRLI) for Manufacturing Companies in Malaysia

Salina Daud; Wan Noordiana Wan Hanafi; Jegatheesan Rajadurai; Nurhidayah Mohamed Othman

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 421-439
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60607

Industry 4.0 affects all business areas as companies need both virtual and physical structures to enable collaboration between machines, devices, and people, as well as rapid adaptation along the value chain. A strong leader will help the smooth execution of Industry 4.0. This study aims to capture the indicators that will assist in designing the Fourth Industrial Leadership Index (4IRLI) in the manufacturing sector. The data collection for this study includes a focus group discussion, in-depth interview, an expert opinion interview, and a survey. Based on experts’ comments and recommendations, the questionnaire was modified to remove vague statements, redundant terms and improve the flow and structure of the questions. The Partial Least Square (PLS) approach is used to analyse the collected data. The Complexity Leadership theory is used as an underlying theory in the study. This study will produce a 4IRLI for manufacturing companies highly involved with the industrial revolution. In doing so, this study will be supporting government initiatives to transform the manufacturing industry into Industry 4.0. This is in line with the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals, which aim to build resilient infrastructure, promote sustainable industrialisation, foster innovation, and ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns. 

Strategic Leadership: A Bibliometric Analysis on Current Status and Emerging Trends

Yan Tao; Jiaxi He; Yi-fei Wang; Hongyan Ke

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 439-458
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2021.60608

Strategic leadership has become an indispensable factor for companies to promote their development, maintain competitive advantage, and seek new opportunities. This study examines the various features of strategic leadership research by retrieving and analyzing the existing publications. The main objective of this study is to review 416 relevant papers on strategic leadership in the Web of Science core database from 1996 to 2021. With the help of HistCite and VOSviewer visual science tools, this paper first presents the research methodology and data sources to describe an overview of strategic leadership research, including growth trends, journal distribution, core authors, research institutions, and key literature. Next, this paper also finds four research strands in existing research: leader traits, CEO-TMT interface, learning and innovation, and dynamic leadership. Then, we used the keyword analysis to extract five hot topics with research value: strategic leaders, corporate governance, ethical practices, organizational learning, and organizational change and innovation. This study provides a reference for selecting a research theme and constructing a framework for strategic leadership in a comprehensive, scientific and visual way. Furthermore, it also offers the scholars map for building collaborative research networks with multiple core authors and research institutions across the globe. Therefore, they could contribute significantly to further research.

A General Management Skills for the Hierarchy of Bank Managers

Jalil Bagheri; Shahram Mirzaei Daryani; Farzad Sattari Ardabili; Majid Ahmadlou; Behnam Azadi

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2021, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 459-474
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2022.60615

The purpose of this study is to provide general management skills for the hierarchy of managers in Iranian Tejarat Bank to identify, assess, prioritize, and enhance the required general skills. The present research is an inductive, cross-sectional case study with a mixed-methods design. Data were collected using document analysis, interviews, and questionnaires in two steps: stratified sampling in the first phase, including 63 subjects, and random sampling in the second step, including 2220 subjects. The questionnaire has been included from items achieved from interviews in the first step. After data collection, exploratory factor analysis and t-test were used, and the Friedman test was used to rank the components and indicators. The results indicated that five skills are necessary for all three managerial positions: behavioral, interaction, personal, leadership, and managerial skills. Also, there are significant differences in the priority of skills in three levels. The highest-ranked skills for top, middle and first-line management were self-management, teamwork, and judgment. The results are useful to empower bank managers based on the most needed skills.