Issue 4

The Labor Nature Changes and its Regulation Challenge Caused by Global Digitalization of Business

Olga V. Azoeva; Larisa Yu. Mikhalevich; Vladislav A. Ostapenko; Galina A. Shim

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2020, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 170-183
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60504

The digital technologies development and widespread in economy and social sphere led to
serious labor nature changes and appearance new problems in labor market. The avalanche
like information flows growth, complication of production and technological processes
requires countries to use actively as possible the advantages of new technologies in order to
increase the competitiveness of their economies. The analysis of digital technologies impact
on modern business processes in manufacturing and services sectors revealed the changes in
functions and requirements for employees’ knowledge, skills and competencies. This
necessitates the search for new approaches to the labor organization, modification the forms
and social and labor relations content within the company and the labor market as well.
Thanks to modern technologies, opportunities are opening up for creating new jobs,
increasing productivity and production efficiency, and new industries and specialties
emergence. New digital technologies-based production business models need workers with
professional as well as developed cognitive and socio-behavioral skills in complex problem
solving, logical thinking, teamwork, and the ability to adapt to changing conditions and
circumstances. The skills are acquired through learning lifelong. In industrialized countries,
including Russia, as the conducted studies indicated employment becomes more flexible, but
less stable in connection with the business digitalization. In this regard, the authors propose
the measures to ensure the companies personnel potential development, the labor force
competitiveness increase in response to the global technological changes’ challenges

Factors of Human Resource Management Practices Affecting Organizational Performance

Saunah Zainon; Rina Fadhilah Ismai; Raja Adzrin Raja Ahmad; Roslina Mohamad Shafi; Faridah Najuna Misman; Sofwah Md Nawi; Juliana Mohamed Abdul Kadir

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2020, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 184-197
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60505

The purpose of this study is to examine factors of human resource management practices
affecting organizational performance. This study employed descriptive method in gathering,
analyzing, interpreting, and presenting the information. The descriptive research design helped
in identifying the strength of the relationship between factors of human resource management
practices affecting organizational performance. Questionnaires were distributed to employees
of Jakel Trading Company in Johor, Malaysia and of the total obtained, 139 responses were
usable and analyzed. Inferential statistics were also performed for data analysis and
presentation purposes. Correlations and frequencies were among the statistical measures used
in this study. Based on the findings, all three hypotheses formed at the beginning of the study
were supported. The results of multiple regression showed that staff training, performance
appraisal and rewards, as well as recognition are all significant factors of human resource
management practices affecting organizational performance. It was also found that staff
training and recognition do affect the organizational performance as a whole. This study
provides input to employers on how to reward and motivate their staff for better performance

Designing an Optimal Pattern of Assessing Native and Non-Native Managers’ Performance in Hormozgan Province, Iran

Tayeb Dehghani; Serajaldin Mohebbi; Mehdi Bagheri

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2020, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 198-213
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60506

Nowadays, the issue of public sector managers’ responsiveness to their actions in the new
managerial environment is addressed more intensely. Therefore, in the modern attitude,
assessing managers’ performance as a framework for implementing strategies and policies,
achieving organizational goals, and their responsiveness to beneficiaries and the society is
considered. This study aims to develop an optimal pattern to assess native and non-native
managers’ performance in terms of four aspects of human, perceptual, and technical skills
as well as personal traits and measure their performance through the combination of 360 –
degree feedback and analytic network process. The statistical population consists of two
groups of native and non-native managers in key posts in Hormozgan province. The
required samples, who were selected through proportional stratified random sampling, for
the groups of native and non-native managers are respectively estimated to be 31 and 23.
The indices of performance assessment were extracted through the meta-synthesis method
and validated using the Delphi technique and experts’ opinions. By combining 360-degree
feedback and analytic network process, native and non-native managers were appropriately
ranked, which this ranking can be applied to administrative agencies of Hormozgan

The Organizational Citizenship Behavior Impact on the Adaptive Performance of Moroccan Employees

Zakaria Nejjari; Hanane Aamoum

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2020, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 214-226
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60507

In this article, the relation between organizational citizenship behavior and adaptive
performance has been studied. The study was carried out with 67 Moroccan companies. The
sample used for this study is composed of 289 employees. This study is fundamentally a
quantitative study using the methodology of survey research and SMART PLS by means of
structural equation modeling (SEM) to evaluate information. Educational and managerial
providers can use the findings to know what the capacity of individuals to adapt to new
conditions and requirements of a job as well as the findings help professionals understand
individual factors of adaptive performance. The results showed that adaptive performance is
influenced by organizational citizenship behaviors—individuals and organizational
citizenship behaviors—organizations and that the influence of organizational citizenship
behaviors—individuals is greater than that of organizational citizenship behaviors—
organizations. This research provides innovative knowledge regarding the adaptative
performance of the employees. Concerning the limitations of the study which also reconfigure
lines of future research, it is important to note, in the first place, the geographical restriction
of the population under study to the Moroccan employees.

The Mediation Effect of Leader Support in the Effect of Organizational Commitment on Job Satisfaction: A Research in the Turkish Textile Business

Saadet Ela Pelenk

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2020, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 227-242
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60508

Organizational commitment is a psychological concept that expresses the feelings of belonging and loyalty. Commitment and leader support can increase job satisfaction, but factors such as economic crises, epidemics, globalization increase socio-economic problems such as unemployment and productivity loss. In this context, leader support such as career development, information sharing, feedback and finding solutions to the problem may cause employees to feel valuable and to make effort. This research shows that a leader-manager is the person who not only maintains the current period but also understands employee behaviors and reactions. As an effect of this research, employees do not see their job as compulsory, but find it meaningful and consequently job satisfaction may increase. The purpose of this research is to examine the mediating effect of leader support in the effect of organizational commitment on job satisfaction. For this purpose, a questionnaire was completed by 126 blue-collar workers (N = 150) in textile company in Istanbul. In the analysis of research data, SPSS 21 statistical software and multiple regression method were used. As a result of the research, the mediating role of leader support in the effect of organizational commitment on job satisfaction has been determined. This research, is based on neo-classical management approach, contributes to the scientific management literature and human resources managers in order to increase the productivity of business and employee in cooperation with leaders and employees.

Does School Organizational Process Matter for Educational Outcomes in England?

Amira Elasra

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2020, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 243-255
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60509

Most of the existing literature have shown that the educational production function approach
hardly accounts for the school organizational process variables. This paper examines the
teacher and school organizational effectiveness impacts on English students’ both cognitive
and affective outcomes using the Context-Input-Process-Outcome model. Using the
Longitudinal Study of Young People in England, the primary finding is that teachers matter.
Teachers play a significant positive moderate role in improving students’ cognitive outcome
yet a much bigger role in improving their affective outcome. Although the paper proved that
school organizational process inputs are important in explaining students’ outcomes, the
moderate magnitude of some of these inputs on cognitive outcome reflected that student
related inputs such as academic self-schema and attitude towards continuing to higher
education could play a major role in explaining such outcome.

Presenting a Model Explaining the Factors Affecting the Faculty Academic Recession at Ardabil University of Medical Sciences

Sousan Salimi Pormehr; Sadraddin Sattari; Turan Soleimani

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2020, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 256-272
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60510

The purpose of this study was to present a model to explain the factors affecting the academic
recession of faculty members at Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran. As a
descriptive-survey research having a mixed methods design, this study identifies the relevant
indicators, puts forward rating and validation of a model. In the qualitative phase, the
population included university experts, faculty members, experts in the field of higher
education, and policymakers. We selected 10 people as participants through purposive
sampling. In the quantitative phase, all faculty members of Ardabil University of Medical
Sciences including 226 people were selected by the complete enumeration method. The data
collection instrumentation included an interview and a researcher-made questionnaire. The
results of the analysis of interviews with Grounded Theory and content analysis revealed that
the factors affecting the academic recession of faculty members at Ardabil University of
Medical Sciences include: personal factors (age, IQ, work history, personality traits, marital
status, and gender); organizational and environmental factors (type of employment,
organizational structure, salary and benefits, governing relationships in promotion, university
management, and rules and regulations); psychological factors (lack of success, inappropriate
social relationships, not enjoying work, and job stress); work factors (being members of
different scientific committees, priority of economic and financial factors among physicians,
prioritization of work in the personal surgery office, lack of appropriate incentives and
penalties, the value of the title of physician and no need for promotion, and ignoring medical
errors), and skill factors (lack of language proficiency, weakness in public speaking, and lack
of skill in using specialized software).

The Linkages of Financial Self-Efficacy and Financial Decision Behaviour: Learning from Female Lecturers in East Coast Malaysia

Suhal Kusairi; Nizam Ahmad; Tan Jeng Kae

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2020, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 273-287
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60511

The goal of the study is to examine how the financial self-efficacy can explain the personal financial behaviour of female lecturers on a financial decision, through the application of a psychometric instrument. The study employed the survey approach on the 239 female lecturersin East Coast Malaysia, selected based on simple random sampling. The analysis uses the multivariate Probit method. The results showed that financial self-efficacy is negatively related to the likelihood of a female lecturer having any credit card, loan and insuranceproducts. Furthermore, there was no positive impact on the level of individual efficacy with the possibility of female lecturers having savings accounts. Meanwhile, lecturers who attended financial courses were less likely to have credit cards than women lecturers who had never attended a financial course. Besides, female lecturers with higher education levels and household income possesseda more substantial probability of having loan products. The critical factor affecting the likelihoodof female lecturers having any insurance products wasethnicity, marital status, household income level, Media electronic and magazine references, and investment consultants. The implication of this studysuggests thatfinancial self-efficacy is essential to a personal financial advisor, the credit counselling,and debt management agency to help their customer to solve personal financial problems and make a decision.

Perceiving the Leadership and Organizational Identity under the Contemplation of Understanding of Psychoanalytical Approach

Ilknur Ozturk; Anjelika Huseyinzade Simsek; Jasim Tariq

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2020, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 288-303
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60512

The main intent of the psychoanalytical approach on organizations is to comprehend what
happens to individuals who work in groups and organizations and also to understand the effect
of organizations on individuals. Understanding the dynamics of organized groups without
putting individuality in the background can bring new perspectives to the research and
implementations in the area of organizational behavior, management and leadership. This
disparate approach can help organizations and individuals within organization to maintain
togetherness, and enhance the effectiveness of organizational work which will lead to high
performance and success. This paper aims to shed light on leadership, relationship among
leaders and followers, and understanding of discursive nature of organizational identity from
the perspectives of Psychoanalytical Approach based on works of Freud, Lacan, Bion, etc. In
up to date literature, studies on organizational behavior have mostly been carried with
humanistic or cognitive and behavioral approach focusing on organizations but the main
shortcoming of those studies is that they have not owned in depth investigations and excluded
the individuality from their understanding. It is very important to deepen our knowledge on
new understandings and practices in the fields of organizational behavior, management, and
contribute to the dynamic structure of the modernizing world; future research using
psychoanalytical approach can bring new perspectives to the field.

The Impact of COVID-19 Outbreak on Human Resource Operation: Empirical Evidence from the Perspective of Malaysian Retail Employees in Klang Valley

Md Suliman Hossin; Ilham Sentosa; Md Shuhel Miah

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2020, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 304-320
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60513

The aim of this research is to examine the Coivd-19 impacts on the Human Resource (HR)
operation in the Malaysian retail sector, especially in the Klang Valley area. A self
administered online survey was conducted with 330 participants answering. The partial least
square approach to structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was used to investigate the
direct effects of the proposed variables. Besides, the mediation test was used to examine the
indirect effects. The outcomes of the study showed that the current pandemic has an essential
influence on job depression and anxiety at the retail level. Furthermore, the direct
relationship between Covid-19, salary, and layoff is significant, suggesting that COVID-19
is a severe problem for employees' salaries and layoffs. In contrast, the indirect effect of
Covid19, job depression, job anxiety, salary, and layoff confirm a significant relationship
with partial mediation. Job depression, however, does not mediate the relationship between
COVID-19 and layoff. This research only considered Klang Valley area in addition to the
data collected through the convenient sampling method by using an online survey form. The
findings of the study offer an insight into the factors influencing human capital management
and how the retail decision-makers, retailers, retail consultants, and staff should devise a
new approach to adjust HR policies in a ‘new normal’ situation. The study adds to the
existing knowledge about the effect of Covid-19 on job depression, job anxiety, salaries, and
layoffs among retail employees. This study will also provide a source of further research
because the area under investigation is new in the current pandemic situation