Issue 2

Leading Change in Educational Institutions for Technology Adoption in Latin America

Patricia Avitia Carlos; Bernabé Rodríguez Tapia; Norma Candolfi Arballo

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2020, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 67-76
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60491

Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) have become increasingly relevant in most work environments and this tendency is expected to continue over time. Therefore, educational systems around the world have made efforts for the acquisition and use of technology. This study aims to identify representative ICT integration programs on education present in recent decades in Latin America, as part of the interpretation and adaptation of public policies to the context. Bibliographic techniques were used to analyze the trends that have been followed in the region in terms of educational management for the adoption of ICT. As a result, more than 70 articles from scientific journals, four databases and three government websites were analyzed. They evidence an awareness of the relevance of ICT for innovation, and the existence of strategic programs for the reduction of access and use gaps. However, it is also noted the existence a challenging context characterized by socioeconomic inequities. In general, the influence of public policy on the promotion of these programs is observed, as well as the need for a theoretical methodological support for the development of an integral management model, in which the technology component does not constitute a parallel item. Management of educational institutions is crucial to normalize experiences and provide references that can be integrated into environmental conditions.

Organizational Commitment: Re-structuring a Concept Crucial for Management and Leadership Using a Confirmatory Factor Analysis

Thomas Meixner

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2020, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 77-92
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60492

This paper aimed at answering the question, how the widely discussed concept of organizational commitment can be clustered. Based on relevant literature on employee commitment, a four-dimensional model of commitment was proposed. The proposed layers included a rational, a behavioral, a normative and an emotional layer, with each of them ranging from the lowest level of commitment – compliance – to the highest level, described as internalization. In order to assess this assumed model, the approach of an empirical study leading up to a confirmatory factor analysis was chosen. Using a wide array of pre-existing questionnaires, a set of items were generated in accordance with the proposed model and tested on a survey of n = 300 participants. Using a R-based confirmatory factor analysis, the proposed factor structure was assessed in terms of its model fit. Analyses however suggest a two-factor model, as only for emotional and behavioral commitment a satisfactory model fit could be shown. An additionally conducted reliability analysis confirmed this result. Therefore, based on the empirical data, a two-factor model of commitment is suggested. It is argued within the discussion of the results, that only the factors emotional and behavioral commitment target actually the relationship between employer and employee, whereas normative commitment depends stronger on the personality and the values of the employee, while rational commitment might be stronger connected to the overall (employment) market situation. Potential recommendations for practitioners are deducted from the findings and possible approaches for future research are presented.

Transformational Leadership Spur Organizational Commitment among Optimistic Followers: The Role of Psychological Capital

Chunhui Huo; Muhammad Waheed Akhtar; Muhammad Arslan Safdar; Muhammad Kashif Aslam; Khurram Abbas; Muhammad Hasan Rafiq; Kamran Iqbal; Dr Saad Najim AL-Khafaji

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2020, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 93-104
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60498

The present study aims to investigate the effect of transformational leadership on psychological capital and organizational commitment. In addition, this study investigates the effect of psychological capital on organizational commitment. Furthermore, this study also investigates the mediating effect of psychological capital on the relationship between transformational leadership and organizational commitment under the lens of social exchange theory. Three hundred-fifty survey questionnaires were distributed among employees of the health sector to test the hypotheses of this study. We validated the proposed framework using the mediation technique. The results indicated that transformational leadership is significantly related to organizational commitment and psychological capital. Further, results also revealed that psychological capital is significantly related to organizational commitment. Moreover, the results also showed that psychological capital mediates the relationship between transformational leadership and organizational commitment. This study will be significant for the managers and employees in the health sector who need to understand that transformational leaders promote psychological capital, which ultimately enhances organizational commitment. Healthcare management should arrange training programs on transformational leadership styles for managers because transformational leaders gain their subordinates’ trust due to their devotion and contributions. The limitations of this study and future directions are also provided in the discussion section.

Transparency of the Concepts of Directing and Leadership in Organizational Leadership Theory based on Critical Hermeneutics Theory

Shalaleh Kameli; Shahram Mirzaei Daryani; Mohammad Kheirandish; Majid Ahmadlou

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2020, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 105-122
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60499

Some researchers consider leadership and directing to be equivalent as much as they use them interchangeably. According to the study of the historical course done in this research, this issue has been seen more than ever in recent texts. In this study, the critical hermeneutics of Prasad’s (2005) four-stage model was used. In the first stage, the data was collected from books, and papers related to organizational leadership theory. To this end, 61 definitions of organizational leadership and eight definitions of directing have been collected from the viewpoint of management experts. Ambiguities were raised in the form of questions about the intentions of the authors of the relevant texts. In the second stage, layers of texts were interpreted, and themes and concepts were extracted. In the third stage, to close the hermeneutic cycle, a narrative case was used, which is the personal experience of an organizational leader of the distinction between leadership and directing. The final stage was suggested to the researchers not to consider the words ‘leadership’ and ‘directing’ equivalent or interchangeable. Directing is a part of leadership that is more or less applied depending on the type of leadership style. It is also recommended for experts in marketing, business and economics to use the alternative terms market pioneer and industry director instead of the words market leader and industry leader because obedience to other organizations may be due to duty not influence or follow-up.