Issue 4

A Cross-cultural Analysis of Management Approaches in Comparison to Turkish and Swiss Companies

Erdem Erciyes

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2019, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60483

This research investigates management approaches though a cross-cultural analysis of both Turkish and Swiss companies. A qualitative and exploratory research method was employed. Organizational culture, leadership and motivation have been investigated separately in the research. This approach provided a better understanding for highlighting different parts of both subjects and showed how they were related to each other. While the human oriented leadership types and management approach are beginning to gain popularity in Turkish companies, democratic and participatory types of leadership are more common in Swiss companies. Likewise, McClelland’s need of achievement and Maslow’s need of esteem are the most popular motivational preferences in Turkish companies. On the other hand, Swiss managers prefer McClelland’s human motivation theory in praxis. In addition, the findings of the research indicate that managerial awareness about different nationalities should be increased in both Turkish and Swiss companies. Managers who have high cultural intelligence should be employed and cultural sensitivity should be embedded into corporate culture of the companies. The findings of this research do not present different management systems or develop scientific road maps for dealing with various cultures, however, it emphasizes the importance of showing managerial awareness about different nationalities in the work environment.

The Effects of Management Skills on Job Satisfaction at Different Organizational Levels in Banks: The Role of Social Support and SelfEfficacy

Jalil Bagheri; Shahram Mirzaei Daryani; Farzad Sattari Ardabili; Behnam Azadi; Majid Ahmadlu

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2019, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 12-21
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60484

The current study aims to examine the effects of management skills on job satisfaction and mediating role of self-efficacy and social support. To this end, 236 questionnaires have been collected from managers of Tejarat bank. The results showed that, as individual self-efficacy increases, social support cannot significantly mediate the relationship between management skills and job satisfaction. However, managerial skills had a significant effect on employee's job satisfaction. Also, social support significantly mediated the effects of management skill on job satisfaction. Furthermore, self-efficacy reverses the effect of management skills on job satisfaction. The results further revealed that in high levels of self-efficacy and high skills, job satisfaction for management would be affected by other variables. The satisfaction in higher level of organizations may need to be evaluated through different models rather than current ones.

The Leadership Process in Teacher Education: A Case Study at the University of Lisbon

Ana Luísa Rodrigues

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2019, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 22-37
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60485

The leadership and pedagogical supervision process in teacher education is a crucial issue for the training pedagogical quality and teachers’ professional development. The relationship that is necessary to establish between the Higher Education Institution and the Cooperating Schools where the supervised pedagogical practice is carried out is crucial. In this study we analyze this process of shared leadership and supervision, understanding this relationship from a perspective of effective collaboration, reflexivity and sharing of practices between various contributors – the preservice teacher, the university professor and the mentor teacher. Based on this premise, we shall analyze the importance of leadership in an educational context and the role of supervision for the improvement of organizational and teaching-learning situations and experiences. The aim of this study is to promote autonomy and shared interaction, contributing to professional development and knowledge co-construction. In methodological terms, this is a case study, within the scope of the Master in Teaching of Economics and Accounting at the Institute of Education, University of Lisbon, the only master’s degree in Portugal that provides a professional qualification for teaching in secondary education in the area of Economics and Accounting. This study intends to obtain a characterization of the leadership and supervision process developed, to reflect on appropriate leadership theories in educational context and to outline the main functions of the mentor teacher as a fundamental part of the collaborative supervision process, framed in the current model of teacher training in Portugal.

Accountability, Legitimacy, and Voluntary Tax Compliance: A Case Study in Tax Offices in Mazandaran Province of Iran

Mohammad Reza Sobhkhiz; Ali Mehdizadeh Ashrafi; Toraj Mojibi; Mahmood Otadi

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2019, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 38-55
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2020.60486

This study investigates the impact of the tax system's accountability on improving taxpayers' voluntary tax compliance through influencing taxpayers' perceived legitimacy in tax offices in Mazandaran province of Iran. The accountability is here taken as ‘responsiveness’. Adopting mixed methods design, the Delphi technique was first used to identify the legitimate expectations and demands of taxpayers. In the second step, 4 types of accountability mechanisms were identified as the components of overall accountability. In the third step, using partial least squares path modeling via Smart PLS software, the impact of the tax system's accountability on the perceived legitimacy of the tax system as well as the impact of perceived legitimacy of the tax system on voluntary tax compliance was tested. The obtained results indicated that the tax system's accountability affects voluntary tax compliance through influencing taxpayers' perceived legitimacy of the tax system. Furthermore, political and social accountability was not at the optimal level and the optimality of managerial and legal accountability did not have a significant impact on voluntary tax compliance. Finally, it is suggested that to improve the perceived legitimacy of the tax system. As the results of voluntary tax compliance showed, more attention should be paid to the mechanisms of political accountability in the political sector and social accountability in both the political and administrative sectors of the tax system.