Issue 4


Risk analysis in the management of urban construction projects from the perspective of the employer and the contractor

Mohammad Taghipour; Fatemeh Seraj; Mohammad Amir Hassani; Sharareh Farahani Kheirabadi

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 356-373
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60284

Imbalance between anticipated and actual progress in the development of urban construction projects suggests that there are many obstacles and risks which not only causes the urban management be unsustainable, but the reconstruction and development of urban space is also seriously threatened. In this study, the library research on issues related to the risk of construction projects was done, then some interviews were conducted with experts and managers informed and involved in the projects, and finally questionnaires were distributed to identify and classify the impact of the risks of the implementation of the construction projects. After analyzing the data, the results indicated that the experts listed the most significant risks as the delays in the payment of contractors claims and statements due to the lack of handling financial instruments, the governance of relationships rather than rules in the tenders resulting from employer actions, low commitment to the quality of work provided by their subcontractors, failure to complete the detail engineering by foreign contractors on time, weaknesses in contractors financial resources, and offering lower prices than reasonable by contractors to win the tender. All of these require special attention and other kinds of risks are important at the next level. Finally, the solutions for eliminating or reducing risks in high-risk areas have been offered to provide tranquility for contractors and employers.

An investigation into the relationship between the organizational intelligence and the performance of Melli and Mehr Eghtesad banks managers in Ardabil

Fatemeh Bagheri Toolarood; Shahram Mirzaei Daryani

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 374-391
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60345

The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the organizational intelligence and the performance of Melli and Mehr Eghtesad banks managers in Ardabil. In the present study cross-correlation method was used. The population consisted of all managers and assistants of Melli and Mehr Eghtesad banks in Ardabil which were about 132 people. The main tools of data collection were a standardized questionnaire that assigned for organization intelligence and a researcher-made questionnaire measured the relationship between two variables. To test the hypothesis, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Spearman’s Correlation coefficient, and Mann-Whitney U Test Statistics were used. The findings revealed that there was a significant relationship between the organizational intelligence variables and the performance of banks managers and there was no significant difference between the organizational intelligence of Melli and Mehr Eghtesad banks managers.

Non-verbal communication barriers when dealing with Saudi sellers

Yosra Missaoui

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 392-402
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60419

Communication has a major impact on how customers perceive sellers and their organizations. Especially, the non-verbal communication such as body language, appearance, facial expressions, gestures, proximity, posture, eye contact that can influence positively or negatively the first impression of customers and their experiences in stores. Salespeople in many countries, especially the developing ones, are just telling about their companies’ products because they are unaware of the real role of sellers and the importance of non-verbal communication. In Saudi Arabia, the seller profession has been exclusively for foreign labor until 2006. It is very recently that Saudi workforce enters to the retailing sector as sellers.  The non-verbal communication of those sellers has never been evaluated from consumer’s point of view. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to explore the non-verbal communication barriers that customers are facing when dealing with Saudi sellers. After discussing the non-verbal communication skills that sellers must have in the light of the previous academic research and the depth interviews with seven focus groups of Saudi customers, this study found that the Saudi customers were not totally satisfied with the current non-verbal communication skills of Saudi sellers. Therefore, it is strongly recommended to develop the non-verbal communication skills of Saudi sellers by intensive trainings, to distinguish more the appearance of their sellers, especially the female ones, to focus on the time of intervention as well as the proximity to customers.

The effects of knowledge management and self-organization on organizational creativity: The mediating roles of corporate innovativeness and organizational communication

Tuna Uslu; Duygu Çubuk

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 403-413
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60220

Creativity and innovation are very important to achieve successful performance results in the organizations. Even there is a common view about the effects of the environment to increase creativity; there are limited studies about the institutions how to use corporate tools for this purpose. This study aims to determine the factors behind organizational creativity and evaluate the effects of these factors on organizational creativity within a model demonstrating structural relations. The rapid development of information and communication technologies have been changing the organizational structure, business and work methods, manager and employee profile, and in general work life, and  have been bringing out new models particularly in communication in inside and outside the organization. Institutions aim to strengthen their employees with a positive approach by infusing them with concepts such as creativity, and flexibility and supporting them. In this study we examine the effects of these organizational predictors like knowledge management and self-organization on the employee creativity through innovativeness and communication. In our survey we used questionnaire method to the convenient sampled 227 employees in Turkey. Factor analysis towards findings and progressive intermediary variable tests are carried out by verifying different models. It was found that knowledge management and self-organization are effective on organizational creativity, but the most important factor determining organizational creativity is organizational communication followed by corporate innovativeness. We suggest the managers, in order to increase organizational creativity in their institutions; they should use knowledge management and corporate innovativeness effectively, so they can increase the efficiency of organizational communication.

The impact of indigenous culture on female leadership in Pakistan

Shafta Manzoor

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 414-429
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60414

Digging into the experiences of thirty working women, this study examined the barriers imposed by indigenous culture of Pakistan impose on these women. The study followed a qualitative research approach with phenomenological theoretical framework. Fifteen females were interviewed from urban areas and fifteen from rural areas to draw a holistic picture of indigenous culture of Pakistan and its effect on career progress of females. From the data collected, seven categories were initially developed through open coding, followed by three clusters through axial coding and lastly the study created a theoretical framework through selective coding. Findings of the study indicated that indigenous culture strongly affects the career success of working women in Pakistan. The study concluded that indigenous culture of Pakistan puts taboos on females in the form of family behavior, expectations, and the structurally enforced inferior status of females which affects their leadership skills negatively and restricts their career growth. The study concluded that indigenous culture affects career progress of females in negative way and although efforts have been done to give women equal rights in Pakistan, these efforts will become more meaningful if general perception of society about women and their role starts to change which will require awareness programs and cooperation from academic institutions and policy makers. 

Industrial conflict and its management in selected Nigerian manufacturing companies

Solaja Oludele Mayowa com

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 430-439
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60453

This study examined industrial conflict and its management strategies in selected manufacturing companies in Lagos State, Nigeria. The study utilized co-relational survey method which involves the use of structured questionnaire and personal observation to elicit information from the respondents. Participants comprised of staffs of three manufacturing companies in Lagos, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was employed in selecting the respondents from the three manufacturing companies under the study. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistic including tables, frequency counts, and percentages as well as mean scores. The findings revealed that the causes of conflict in manufacturing companies in Lagos State, Nigeria include poor means of communicating grievances to top managers, unfavorable economic and industrial policies, poor employee compensation and welfare among others. Therefore, this study concluded that managers should combine strategies such as bargaining, collaboration and avoidance when dealing with industrial conflict to maintain cordial and productive labour-management relationship.

The rate of the productivity of human resources, capital, and energy in sub-sectors of industry during 1991-2011

Morteza Parandakh; Masoumeh Kiani

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 440-452
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60386

This study estimated the rate of productivity of human resources, capital, and energy (electricity) in a selection of sub-sectors of industry (basic metals, chemicals, non-metallic minerals, rubber and plastic products, and food products) during 1991-2011 using the econometric methods. For this purpose, first, the amount of the stability of the models variables in time series was tested. Then, the existence of co-integration between them was determined and, finally, the productivity of the model was calculated using ARDL. According to the results, the elasticity of labor force, capital and energy were 1.07, 1.47 and -0.23, respectively.

The Effect of strategic leadership and empowerment on job satisfaction of the employees of Guilan University

Mostafa Ebrahimpour Azbari; Mohsen Akbari; Milad Hooshmand Chaijani

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 453-464
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60230

The methods for the management and leadership of educational and research organizations has always been a question of some researchers. With the emergence of the strategic management in educational organizations, different views were raised about the management of these institutions whether it is possible to apply issues related to the business and educational administration field. They both agree on the difference between educational environment and business environment. This difference leads to different research areas which one of them is the managers’ educational leadership style. Regarding to the educational research centers’ management, strategic leadership is one of leadership styles. This paper examined the effect of this leadership style on empowerment and job satisfaction of employees of Guilan University. The statistical population of the study consisted of 235 employees of Guilan University. Smart PLS software and Structural Equation Modeling were used for data analysis. The results showed that the style of strategic leadership and employee empowerment had a significant positive effect on job satisfaction.

The relationship between glass ceiling and power distance as a cultural variable by a new method

Naide Jahangirov; Guler Saglam Ari; Seymur Jahangirov; Nuray Guneri Tosunoglu

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 465-483
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60300

Glass ceiling symbolizes a variety of barriers and obstacles that arise from gender inequality at business life. With this mind, culture influences gender dynamics. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between the glass ceiling and the power distance as a cultural variable within organizations. Gender variable is taken as a moderator variable in relationship between the concepts. In addition to conventional correlation analysis, we employed a new method to investigate this relationship in detail. The survey data were obtained from 109 people working at a research center which operated as a part of the non-profit private university in Ankara, Turkey. The relationship between the variables was revealed by a new method which was developed as an addition to the correlation in survey.  The analysis revealed that the female staff perceived the glass ceiling and the power distance more intensely than the male staff. In addition, the medium level relation was determined between the power distance and the glass ceiling perception among female staff.

Cultural background of governance style and quality in Turkey: An introduction

Murat Ertugrul

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 484-492
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60325

Governance is a term that has gained popularity and has been used by academics and institutions such as UN, IMF and World Bank since 1990s. The term may be defined in a broad manner as "the processes of interaction and decision-making among the parties involved in a collective problem”. There are different governance perspectives for different aims. Corporate governance, for example, consists of the processes, customs, policies, laws, and institutions affecting the way people direct, administer or control a corporation. Corporate governance may play an important role especially for the developing countries. They need capital inflows that is affected by sound corporate governance considerably. Turkey is one of the most highlighted emerging economies. In practice, there are some shortcomings in corporate governance compliance in Turkey. In this study, it is aimed to go further than current literature done towards cultural and historical roots which has potentially big impact on the present understanding and compliance of corporate governance in Turkey. The main tool adopted for this aim is closing the gap between respectable studies on the cultural roots of economic understanding of Turkey and studies on corporate governance in Turkey. This paper is presented to share first impressions of this effort. 

Examining the role of information and communication technology in the organizational structure of the QaemShahr municipality

Alireza Dadashi Jokandan; Majid Fattahi; Seyyedeh Fatemeh Ghane

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 493-501
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2015.60445

In the era of progress and technology development, organizations in order to accelerate the delivery of services, reduce costs, and gain customer satisfaction seek to fulfill these goals through the development of information technology and appropriate organizational structure and QaemShahr municipality is not an exception. In this study, the organizational structure is the combination of the complexity, formality, and centralization and the ICT as a part of an organizational system that is impressive in the effectiveness of the activities is taken into consideration. This study is an applied research adopting a descriptive method. Following this, 100 people from QaemShahr municipality were participated in the study of whom 80 staff were elected as the sample size. To collect the data for examining the relationship between ICT and organizational structure, a researcher-made questionnaire with 0.86 Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and Stephen Robins standard questionnaire to assess the organizational structure were used. To analyze the data, SPSS software was used for inferential statistics. The results indicated that ICT had impact on organizational structure and among the three dimensions of the structure, formality had the highest level of significance with ICT. There is no significant difference in awareness of ICT among women and men as well as the impact of ICT on the organizational structure at different levels in QaemShahr municipality.