Issue 4

Leadership Styles of Managers from the Perspective of Gender

Lucia Zbihlejová; Miroslav Frankovský; Zuzana Birknerová

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2018, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 340-347
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60216

The main objective of the study is to find out whether there are any statistically significant differences in the assessment of the selected leadership attributes between managers from the perspective of gender. A differential analysis was conducted on the sample of 129 respondents (55 male managers – 42.6% and 74 female managers – 57.4%) on the basis of the data collected by means of two methodologies for detecting the leadership behavior attributes: Managerial Grid (Blake and Mouton, 1964) and the new original methodology PALEQ (Paternalistic Leadership Questionnaire). The results of the analyses confirmed the existence of statistically significant differences between male and female managers in assessing the individual leadership attributes. Based on these results, it can be concluded that in terms of the assessment of leadership behavior, male managers use the authoritarian forms of leadership more extensively, whereas female managers are more oriented at the lenient, clement leadership behavior, as compared to the male managers.

Academic Institutions Are No Different to Any Other: Total Quality Management Does Enhance Performance

Elham S. Hasham

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2018, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 348-373
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60340

There are many skeptics about the contributions of Total Quality Management (TQM) to education because of its roots in the world of business. TQM says nothing about actual production but stresses the process of management and collaboration within the system to reach quality output. Any quality-conscious organization, despite the nature, should understand this. This paper will not present any innovative ideas but will define TQM and focus on its influence on the various facets of an institution of higher education. TQM helps to provide better services to its primary customers-students and the community.  Moreover, TQM focuses on continuous improvement and growth that can offer an enhanced and challenging learning environment for all involved. Thus, a more effective and efficient corporate culture emerges. 

The Impact of University Social Responsibility towards Producing Good Citizenship: Evidence from Malaysia

Roziana Shaari; Azlineer Sarip; Azizah Rajab; Wan Zarina Zakaria

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2018, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 374-382
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60183

This paper provides empirical evidence on university social responsibility efforts and how it impacted community. The objectives are to investigate the role UTM plays within and outside UTM boundary in providing facilities and services to the community; and to explain how the facilities and services provided by UTM impacted the community. The study employed secondary data, surveys and focus group discussion to collect data on social impacts. The findings explain on how a university impacted on producing good citizenship through providing facilities and services to their community.

The Impact of Transformational Leadership and Social Interaction on Organizational Performance in the Viewpoint of Knowledge Management: An Empirical Study in Banking Sector of Pakistan.

Raza Hussain Lashari; Aiza Hussain Rana

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2018, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 383-397
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60307

This research examines the impact of transformational leadership (TL) and social interaction (SI) on organizational performance (OP) in the perspective of knowledge management (KM) within Pakistan’s banking sector. In developing countries, knowledge management (KM) is highly practiced but in Pakistan it is a new concept and at the initial stages of its implementation. The situation of Pakistan’s banking sector is better than other services sectors. Therefore, Pakistan’s banking sector is opted as population of the study. Using the simple random sampling technique, 350 questionnaires were distributed in different bank’s branches. The questionnaires were filled by two officer’s rank of employee, i.e., top level managers and middle level managers. Totally, 270 questionnaires were fully completed and used for final analysis. The overall response rate was 77%. Different statistical techniques were applied on the collected data, i.e., Reliability analysis, Pearson’s correlation, Regression analysis and Sobel test. The results indicated that there is a positive relationship among transformational leadership, social interaction, knowledge management, and organizational performance. Furthermore, knowledge management acted as partially mediator between transformational leadership, social interaction and organizational performance. Additionally, current research provides guidelines to the management of banking sector of developing countries specially Pakistan that how transformational leadership, social interaction and knowledge management can improve the organizational performance.

The Relationship between Whistleblowing and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour in Textile Sector

Mehmet Kiziloglu

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2018, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 398-403
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60245

The aim of this research is to examine the relationship between whistleblowing and organizational citizenship behaviors in textile sector operating in Denizli province. The textile production and sales have always been placed on the top for the economic structure in Denizli. One of the important concepts of whistleblowing can be defined as revealing illegal and immoral practices in an organization. The concept of Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is defined as the assumption by employees of positive roles toward the organization about issues that do not fall within their own area of duty, on a voluntary basis and without having any expectation. The study used an empirical approach which includes qualitative and quantitative methods of analyzing data. The data were gathered through surveys from 12 SME firms in textile sector. In total, 192 useable surveys were obtained. The results revealed that there are statistically significant relationships between whistleblowing and organizational citizenship behavior in textile sector.

Leadership 4.0: Digital Leaders in the Age of Industry 4.0

Birgit Oberer; Alptekin Erkollar

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2018, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 404-412
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60332

Industry 4.0 stands for ‘fourth industrial revolution and is a term referring to rapid transformations in the design, production, implementation, operation, and service of manufacturing systems, products, and components. To get the most out of Industry 4.0 technologies, organizations will have to heavily invest in building capabilities in the following dimensions: data and connectivity, analytics and intelligence, conversion to the physical world, and human-machine interaction. In this study, the human dimension of industry 4.0 has priority, by analyzing behavioral leadership theories that focus on the study of the specific behaviors of a leader (the leader behavior is the predictor of his leadership influences and is the best determinant of his leadership success). A two dimensional 4.0 leadership style matrix was developed (x-axis: innovation/technology concern; y-axis: people concern). The results of this study revealed that the developed industry 4.0 leadership style might have the dimensions of first-year students, social, technological or digital, where the 4.0 digital leader forms the highest reachable level in the 4.0 leadership matrix.

Key Skills and Competences for Social Business Advisors: Views from Experts

Nelly Bencheva; Teodora Stoeva; Stela Todorova

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2018, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 413-425
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60282

The aim of the present article is to analyze the training needs as a difference between the current and desired state of knowledge, skills and qualifications of business advisors to provide the necessary consulting services to social intermediaries and social enterprises. Professional profiles of social business consultants are presented on the basis of published job requirements in organizations providing business consulting to social enterprises and by some organizations outside the country due to the poor development of these activities at national level. The research includes the results of 30 interviews with three categories of “Business advisors”, “Business advisors’ entities” and “Social entrepreneurs”. Business advisors usually provide financial and strategic advice to small and mid-sized companies, cooperatives, social enterprises and other formats of company formations. The business advisors must also have an excellent business sense and keen communication skills in order to be able to adequately support social entrepreneurs.

The Impact of Human Resource Management Practices on Innovative Ability of Employees Moderated by Organizational Culture

Qaiser Aman; Tayyba Noreen; Imran Khan; Rafaqet Ali; Asim Yasin

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2018, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 426-439
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60434

This study examines the relationship between human resource practices and innovation in the banking sector of Vehari and the moderation effects of organizational culture on this relationship. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from respondents. Overall, 276 questionnaires were distributed and received back 151 (response rate 54%). The independent variable has six human resource practices: Reward strategy, recruitment strategy, performance appraisal, career oriented trainings, performance oriented trainings and career management. The dependent variable is innovation in banks and the moderator variable is organization culture. This study found a partial support for the relationship between human resource practices and innovation with reward strategy, recruitment strategy. The performance appraisal was significant predictor of innovation and career management. The performance oriented trainings and career oriented trainings were insignificant predictors of innovation. The organization culture moderated this relationship negatively.

The Effect of Organizational Structure on Organizational Justice Perceptions of Employees

Mehtap Özsahin; Senay Yürür

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2018, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 440-453
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60290

The antecedents of perceived fairness of employees about their executives and organizations need to become evident because organizational justice results in both positive and negative changes in behaviours and attitudes of employees. Although, organizational justice refers to the employees’ perceptions about organizational structure and practices, the studies systematically examining organizational factors as antecedents of organizational justice are very rare. In this context, this survey aiming to search the effects of structural factors in terms of centralization and formalization on organizational justice perception of employees is expected to contribute to literature. The survey is conducted on 356 employees of 15 SMEs operating in manufacturing and service industry in Marmara Region-Turkey.  Data obtained from those 356 questionnaires were analysed through the AMOS statistical program. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using AMOS 22.00 statistical programme is conducted to test construct validity and reliability. To test hypotheses, researchers employed structural equation modelling (SEM) with maximum likelihood estimation. Survey findings revealed a positive relationship between formalization level as a component of organizational structure and perceived organizational justice of employees, which is consistent with the previous studies in literature. The finding of this survey revealing a non-significant effect of centralization on procedural and distributive justice is inconsistent with the most of previous studies. However, two surveys conducted in Turkey about that issue had produced similar results strikingly. Thus, findings of a non-significant effect of centralization on procedural and distributive justice but a positive effect on interactional justice may have some Turkish culture-specific implications.

Fuzzy AHP Approach to Prioritizing the Critical Success Factors of Organizational Culture

Nihan Çaglayan; Abdullah Yildizbasi; Babak Daneshvar Rouyendegh (Babek Erdebilli)

International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2018, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 454-466
DOI: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60456

The world that we live in where the social and organizational life rapid social and cultural transformations are experienced, and the intensities of change and competition are intensely perceived has a dynamism. In this dynamism, every human being is a part of an organization. In these organizations, there is a culture which is defined in various ways by various thinkers and it is a rather complex concept. However, all definitions have reached the conclusion that the culture is a common entity shared with a community. In the 1980s, the concept of organizational culture has emerged. While many formal definitions exist, organizational culture is basically a term used to describe the environment where people work and the influence it has on how they think, act, and experience work. Therefore, organizational culture is stated as a system of values, behaviors, habits, norms, beliefs and that direct the behaviors of individuals in an organization. As each individual has a unique personality, every organization has its own personality that distinguishes it from other organizations. Hence, organizational culture consists of several abstract and complementary factors. Literature has shown that there are many factors affecting the success of organizational culture. The prioritization of these factors for the organizations and the effective use of the available resources are gaining importance at this stage. At this stage, different approaches are taken in the literature to prioritize and sort the criteria. MCDM approach which is one of the most prominent approaches was used in this study. The proposed approach was tested based on the opinions of the decision makers and the results were shared.